Appl Clin Inform 2022; 13(02): 339-354
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-1743243
Review Article

Toward a Learning Health Care System: A Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Conceptual Framework for Implementation of Clinical Analytics in a Digital Hospital

Han Chang Lim*
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
2   Department of Health, eHealth Queensland, Queensland Government, Brisbane, Australia
,
Jodie A. Austin*
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
2   Department of Health, eHealth Queensland, Queensland Government, Brisbane, Australia
,
Anton H. van der Vegt*
3   Information Engineering Lab, School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
,
Amir Kamel Rahimi
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
4   Digital Health Cooperative Research Centre, Australian Government, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
,
Oliver J. Canfell
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
4   Digital Health Cooperative Research Centre, Australian Government, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
5   UQ Business School, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
,
Jayden Mifsud
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
,
Jason D. Pole
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
,
Michael A. Barras
6   School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Queensland, PACE Precinct, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Australia
7   Pharmacy Department, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Australia
,
Tobias Hodgson
5   UQ Business School, Faculty of Business, Economics and Law, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
,
Sally Shrapnel
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
8   School of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Australia
,
Clair M. Sullivan
1   Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia
9   Department of Health, Metro North Hospital and Health Service, Queensland Government, Herston QLD, Australia
› Author Affiliations
Funding This study was funded by the Digital Health CRC, grant no.: STARS 0034.

Abstract

Objective A learning health care system (LHS) uses routinely collected data to continuously monitor and improve health care outcomes. Little is reported on the challenges and methods used to implement the analytics underpinning an LHS. Our aim was to systematically review the literature for reports of real-time clinical analytics implementation in digital hospitals and to use these findings to synthesize a conceptual framework for LHS implementation.

Methods Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical analytics derived from electronic health records in adult inpatient and emergency department settings between 2015 and 2021. Evidence was coded from the final study selection that related to (1) dashboard implementation challenges, (2) methods to overcome implementation challenges, and (3) dashboard assessment and impact. The evidences obtained, together with evidence extracted from relevant prior reviews, were mapped to an existing digital health transformation model to derive a conceptual framework for LHS analytics implementation.

Results A total of 238 candidate articles were reviewed and 14 met inclusion criteria. From the selected studies, we extracted 37 implementation challenges and 64 methods employed to overcome such challenges. We identified common approaches for evaluating the implementation of clinical dashboards. Six studies assessed clinical process outcomes and only four studies evaluated patient health outcomes. A conceptual framework for implementing the analytics of an LHS was developed.

Conclusion Health care organizations face diverse challenges when trying to implement real-time data analytics. These challenges have shifted over the past decade. While prior reviews identified fundamental information problems, such as data size and complexity, our review uncovered more postpilot challenges, such as supporting diverse users, workflows, and user-interface screens. Our review identified practical methods to overcome these challenges which have been incorporated into a conceptual framework. It is hoped this framework will support health care organizations deploying near-real-time clinical dashboards and progress toward an LHS.

Author Contributions

Conception and design: H.C.L. and C.M.S. Data collection: J.D.P. and C.M.S. Data extraction: H.C.L., A.K.R., J.M., and A.V.D.V. Quality Assessment: J.A.A. and H.C.L. Data analysis and interpretation: H.C.L., J.A.A., A.V.D.V., and C.M.S. Drafting the manuscript: H.C.L., J.A.A., A.V.D.V., and C.M.S. This article has co–first authorship by three authors. H.C.L., J.A.A., and A.V.D.V. contributed equally and have the right to their name first in their CV. Critical revision of article: H.C.L., J.A.A., A.V.D.V., A.K.R., J.M., O.J.C., J.D.P., M.A.B., T.H., S.S., and C.M.S. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.


Protection of Human and Animal Subjects

Human and/or animal subjects were not involved in completing the present review.


* Marked Authors Are Co–First Authors.


Supplementary Material



Publication History

Received: 29 July 2021

Accepted: 09 January 2022

Publication Date:
06 April 2022 (online)

© 2022. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany