The Development and Piloting of the Ambulatory Electronic Health Record Evaluation Tool: Lessons LearnedFunding This study was funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Background Substantial research has been performed about the impact of computerized physician order entry on medication safety in the inpatient setting; however, relatively little has been done in ambulatory care, where most medications are prescribed.
Objective To outline the development and piloting process of the Ambulatory Electronic Health Record (EHR) Evaluation Tool and to report the quantitative and qualitative results from the pilot.
Methods The Ambulatory EHR Evaluation Tool closely mirrors the inpatient version of the tool, which is administered by The Leapfrog Group. The tool was piloted with seven clinics in the United States, each using a different EHR. The tool consists of a medication safety test and a medication reconciliation module. For the medication test, clinics entered test patients and associated test orders into their EHR and recorded any decision support they received. An overall percentage score of unsafe orders detected, and order category scores were provided to clinics. For the medication reconciliation module, clinics demonstrated how their EHR electronically detected discrepancies between two medication lists.
Results For the medication safety test, the clinics correctly alerted on 54.6% of unsafe medication orders. Clinics scored highest in the drug allergy (100%) and drug–drug interaction (89.3%) categories. Lower scoring categories included drug age (39.3%) and therapeutic duplication (39.3%). None of the clinics alerted for the drug laboratory or drug monitoring orders. In the medication reconciliation module, three (42.8%) clinics had an EHR-based medication reconciliation function; however, only one of those clinics could demonstrate it during the pilot.
Conclusion Clinics struggled in areas of advanced decision support such as drug age, drug laboratory, and drub monitoring. Most clinics did not have an EHR-based medication reconciliation function and this process was dependent on accessing patients' medication lists. Wider use of this tool could improve outpatient medication safety and can inform vendors about areas of improvement.
Keywordselectronic health record - computerized physician order entry - ambulatory care - patient safety - quality of care - medication safety - medication reconciliation
Protection of Human and Animal Subjects
No real patients were used in Ambulatory EHR Evaluation Tool, only test patients were used.
Received: 11 August 2020
Accepted: 16 December 2020
03 March 2021 (online)
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