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Early Detection of Prediabetes and T2DM Using Wearable Sensors and Internet-of-Things-Based Monitoring Applications
Background Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are one of the major long-term health conditions affecting global healthcare delivery. One of the few effective approaches is to actively manage diabetes via a healthy and active lifestyle.
Objectives This research is focused on early detection of prediabetes and T2DM using wearable technology and Internet-of-Things-based monitoring applications.
Methods We developed an artificial intelligence model based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference to detect prediabetes and T2DM via individualized monitoring. The key contributing factors to the proposed model include heart rate, heart rate variability, breathing rate, breathing volume, and activity data (steps, cadence, and calories). The data was collected using an advanced wearable body vest and combined with manual recordings of blood glucose, height, weight, age, and sex. The model analyzed the data alongside a clinical knowledgebase. Fuzzy rules were used to establish baseline values via existing interventions, clinical guidelines, and protocols.
Results The proposed model was tested and validated using Kappa analysis and achieved an overall agreement of 91%.
Conclusion We also present a 2-year follow-up observation from the prediction results of the original model. Moreover, the diabetic profile of a participant using M-health applications and a wearable vest (smart shirt) improved when compared to the traditional/routine practice.
Keywordswearable smart shirt - M-health application - type 2 diabetes mellitus - long-term conditions - prediabetes - clinical decision support - chronic conditions
Protection of Human and Animals Subjects
The study was performed in compliance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and was reviewed by the Auckland University of Technology Institutional Review Board.
Received: 07 July 2020
Accepted: 25 September 2020
Article published online:
06 January 2021
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