Appl Clin Inform 2019; 10(03): 487-494
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1692475
Review Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Computerized Physician Order Entry in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Narrative Review

Jaclyn B. York
1  Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
Megan Z. Cardoso
1  Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
Dara S. Azuma
1  Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
Kristyn S. Beam
1  Department of Pediatrics, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
Geoffrey G. Binney Jr.
2  Department of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Floating Hospital for Children at Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
,
Saul N. Weingart
3  Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

05 October 2018

30 April 2019

Publication Date:
03 July 2019 (online)

Abstract

Background Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has grown since the early 1990s. While many systems serve adult patients, systems for pediatric and neonatal populations have lagged. Adapting adult CPOE systems for pediatric use may require significant modifications to address complexities associated with pediatric care such as daily weight changes and small medication doses.

Objective This article aims to review the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) CPOE literature to characterize trends in the introduction of this technology and to identify potential areas for further research.

Methods Articles pertaining to NICU CPOE were identified in MEDLINE using MeSH terms “medical order entry systems,” “drug therapy,” “intensive care unit, neonatal,” “infant, newborn,” etc. Two physician reviewers evaluated each article for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Consensus judgments were used to classify the articles into five categories: medication safety, usability/alerts, clinical practice, clinical decision Support (CDS), and implementation. Articles addressing pediatric (nonneonatal) CPOE were included if they were applicable to the NICU setting.

Results Sixty-nine articles were identified using MeSH search criteria. Twenty-two additional articles were identified by hand-searching bibliographies and 6 articles were added after the review process. Fifty-five articles met exclusion criteria, for a final set of 42 articles. Medication safety was the focus of 22 articles, followed by clinical practice (10), CDS (10), implementation (11), and usability/alerts (4). Several addressed more than one category. No study showed a decrease in medication safety post-CPOE implementation. Within clinical practice articles, CPOE implementation showed no effect on blood glucose levels or time to antibiotic administration but showed conflicting results on mortality rates. Implementation studies were largely descriptive of single-hospital experiences.

Conclusion CPOE implementation within the NICU has demonstrated improvement in medication safety, with the most consistent benefit involving a reduction in medication errors and wrong-time administration errors. Additional research is needed to understand the potential limitations of CPOE systems in neonatal intensive care and how CPOE affects mortality.

Supplementary Material