Appl Clin Inform 2019; 10(03): 387-394
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1691840
Research Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Electronic Prescribing Incidents Reported by Community Pharmacists

Ana L. Hincapie
1  James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
,
Ahmad Alamer
2  The University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona, United States
,
Julie Sears
1  James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
,
Terri L. Warholak
2  The University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona, United States
,
Semin Goins
1  James L. Winkle College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
,
Sara Danielle Weinstein
2  The University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Tucson, Arizona, United States
› Institutsangaben
Funding This project was funded by a grant from the Community Pharmacy Foundation.
Weitere Informationen

Publikationsverlauf

18. November 2018

23. April 2019

Publikationsdatum:
05. Juni 2019 (online)

Abstract

Background Electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology was introduced as an alternative to handwritten prescriptions allowing health care professionals to send prescriptions directly to pharmacies. While the technology has many advantages, such as improving pharmacy workflow and reducing medication errors, some limitations have been realized.

Objective The objective of this study was to examine the frequency, type, and contributing factors of e-prescribing quality-related incidents reported to two national error-reporting databases in the United States.

Methods This was a retrospective analysis of voluntarily reports of e-prescribing quality-related incidents. A quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted of incidents reported between 2011 and 2015 to the Pharmacy Quality Commitment (PQC) and the Pharmacy Provider e-prescribing Experience Reporting Portal (PEER) databases. For the qualitative analysis, events were combined from the PQC and PEER portal and a 10% random sample of events were analyzed.

Results A total of 589 events were reported to the PEER Portal. Of these, problems with patient directions were the most frequent incident type (n = 210) of which 10% (n = 21) reached the patient. Quantity selection (n = 158) and drug selection (n = 96) were the next most frequently reported events, 20% of which reached the patient. The PQC system received 550 reports. The most frequent event type reported to this system was incorrect directions (23.3%, n = 128) followed by incorrect prescriber (17%), incorrect drug (15%), and incorrect strength (12%). The most common theme in the qualitative analysis was a perceived increased likelihood of patient receiving incorrect drug therapy due to e-prescribing. Another theme identified included confusion and frustration of pharmacy personnel as result of e-prescription quality-related events.

Conclusion The use of qualitative and quantitative incident data revealed that patient directions and quantity selection were the most common quality issues with e-prescribing. In turn, this may increase the likelihood of patients receiving incorrect drug therapy.

Protection of Human and Animal Subjects

This study was performed in compliance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects. This study was considered nonhuman research by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Cincinnati, 20155596.


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