Hydrogen Peroxide: A Versatile Reagent in Organic Synthesis
28 March 2008 (online)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a strong oxidizing agent and a weak acid in aqueous solution. It is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in dilute solution and is completely miscible with water. Hydrogen peroxide and its highly concentrated aqueous solutions (>65%) are soluble in a range of organic solvents, for example carboxylic esters. It decomposes in a violent reaction into water and oxygen if heated above 80 °C. It also decomposes under the influence of light and in the presence of metal ions or oxidizable organic materials. Hydrogen peroxide is commercially available in concentrations of 3-90% as a solution in water.
Hydrogen peroxide and water do not form azeotropic mixtures and can be completely separated by distillation. By fractional crystallization of highly concentrated solutions 100% pure hydrogen peroxide can be obtained. Pure hydrogen peroxide is usually only of academic interest and is not produced on industrial scale.
Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured by the autoxidation of 2-ethyl-9,10-dihydroxyanthracene to 2-ethylanthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide using oxygen from the air. 
JonesCW. Application of Hydrogen Peroxide and Derivatives Royal Society of Chemistry; Cambridge: 1999.
KarimiB. Ghoreishi-NezhadM. ClarkJH. Org. Lett. 2005, 7: 625
MatteucciM. BhalayG. BradleyM. Org. Lett. 2003, 5 : 5235
MbaM. PrinsLJ. LiciniG. Org. Lett. 2007, 9: 21
SunJ. ZhuC. DaiZ. XangM. PanY. HuH. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69: 8500
ClayJM. VedejsE. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127: 5766
MakabeH. KongLK. HirotaM. Org. Lett. 2003, 5: 27
DemayS. VolantF. KnochelP. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40: 1235
JonssonSY. AdolfssonH. BäckvallJ.-E. Org. Lett. 2001, 3: 3463
UsuiY. SatoK. TanakaM. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42: 5623
TrudeauS. MorganJM. ShresthaM. MorkenJP.
J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70: 9538
SgarbossaP. ScarsoA. MichelinRA. StrukulG. Organometallics 2007, 26: 2714
PaneghettiC. GavagninR. PinnaF. StrukulG. Organometallics 1999, 18: 5057
MurahashiS. OnoS. ImadaY. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2002, 41: 2366
DemnitzFW. PhilippiniC. RaphaelRA. J. Org. Chem. 1995, 60: 5114
LaneBS. VogtM. DeRosaVJ. BurgessK. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124: 11946
TongK.-H. WongK.-Y. ChanTH. Org. Lett. 2003, 5: 3423
MarigoM. FranzenJ. PoulsenTB. ZhuangW. JørgensenKA. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2005, 3: 3883
HodgsonDM. AveryTD. DonohueAC. Org. Lett. 2002, 4: 1809
GopinathR. PatelB. Org. Lett. 2000, 2: 577
ZhangY. ShenZ. TangJ. ZhangY. KongL. ZhangY. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2006, 4: 1478