Co-Catalytic Effects in Phase-Transfer Catalyzed Reactions
20 August 2002 (online)
The phase-transfer catalyzed alkylation reaction of diethyl malonate with butyl bromide using solid potassium carbonate as base could not be accelerated above a limiting reaction rate by increasing the concentration of the onium salt catalyst. The rate limit could be exceeded by using crown ether in addition to an onium salt. Polyethylene glycols exhibit a similar effect. These results were used to improve the yields in a series of related alkylation reactions.