Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727129
Original Thoracic

Autologous Blood Pleurodesis: What Is the Optimal Time Interval and Amount of Blood?

1  Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
2  Department of Thoracic Diseases, Thoracic Surgery Unit, University of Bologna, G.B. Morgagni-L. Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy
,
Andrea Dell'Amore*
3  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Vascular Sciences, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Padua University Hospital, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 1, Padua (PD), Italy
,
Yonghui Zhang*
1  Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
,
Zhitao Gu
1  Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
,
Angelo Paolo Ciarrocchi
2  Department of Thoracic Diseases, Thoracic Surgery Unit, University of Bologna, G.B. Morgagni-L. Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy
,
Eleonora Faccioli
3  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Vascular Sciences, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Padua University Hospital, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 1, Padua (PD), Italy
,
Luca Bertolaccini
4  Department of Thoracic Surgery, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy
,
Federico Rea
3  Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Vascular Sciences, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Padua University Hospital, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 1, Padua (PD), Italy
,
Franco Stella
2  Department of Thoracic Diseases, Thoracic Surgery Unit, University of Bologna, G.B. Morgagni-L. Pierantoni Hospital, Forlì, Italy
,
Wentao Fang
1  Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
› Author Affiliations
Funding Statement No funding used.

Abstract

Background Air leak is the most common complication after lung resection and leads to increased length of hospital (LOH) stay or patient discharge with a chest tube. Management by autologous blood patch pleurodesis (ABPP) is controversial because few studies exist, and the technique has yet to be standardized.

Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing ABPP for prolonged air leak (PAL) following lobectomy in three centers, between January 2014 and December 2019. They were divided into two groups: Group A, 120 mL of blood infused; Group B, 60 mL. Propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis was performed, and 23 patients were included in each group. Numbers and success rates of blood patch, time to cessation of air leak, time to chest tube removal, reoperation, LOH, and complications were examined. Univariate and multivariate analysis of variables associated with an increased risk of air leak was performed.

Results After the PSM, 120 mL of blood is statistically significant in reducing the number of days before chest tube removal after ABPP (2.78 vs. 4.35), LOH after ABPP (3.78 vs. 10.00), and LOH (8.78 vs. 15.17). Complications (0 vs. 4) and hours until air leak cessation (6.83 vs. 3.91, range 1–13) after ABPP were also statistically different (p < 0.05). Air leaks that persisted for up to 13 hours required another ABPP. No patient had re-operation or long-term complications related to pleurodesis.

Conclusion In our experience, 120 mL is the optimal amount of blood and the procedure can be repeated every 24 hours with the chest tube clamped.

Note

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of University of Bologna, Shanghai Chest Hospital, and Padua University Hospital (the ID approval number was not produced) and written informed consent was obtained from all patients.


Authors' Contribution

A.C., A.D.A., and Z.G. contributed toward conceptualization of study. A.C., E.F., and Y.Z. contributed toward data curation.


A.C., A.D.A., and L.B. did the formal analysis and A.C. did the investigation. A.C., A.D.A, and W.F. contributed toward methodology. F.S, F.R., and W.F., contributed toward project administration. A.C. took care of software. A.D.A, F.S., F.R., and W.F. supervised the study and A.D.A, F.S., and L.B. validated the study. A.C., Y.Z., and Z.G. did the visualization. A.C. and A.P.C. wrote the original draft. A.D.A. and W.F. wrote, reviewed, and edited the work. None of the authors contributed toward funding acquisition and resources.


* Both authors contributed equally to the article.


Supplementary Material



Publication History

Received: 10 January 2021

Accepted: 03 February 2021

Publication Date:
13 April 2021 (online)

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