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Clinical Characteristics and Remedy Profiles of Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Cohort StudyFunding No separate financial support was sought for the conduct of the study; all contributors (except K.R. and R.S.) are full-time staff employed by the Government of NCT of Delhi.
Dr. Kamal Rawal acknowledges the grant provided by SERB, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India (Grant ID: BT/PR17252/BID/7/708/2016), for the study of repurposed drugs on COVID-19, as well as the support of the Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India.
Objective The aim of the study was to identify indicated homeopathic remedies based on the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in India.
Methods In this retrospective, cohort study, confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at a COVID Health Centre in New Delhi between April 29 and June 17, 2020 were given conventional and homeopathic treatment. Patients were grouped into mild, moderate or severe categories of disease. Their symptomatologic profiles were analyzed to identify indicated homeopathic medicines.
Results A total of 196 COVID-19 patients were admitted. One hundred and seventy-eight patients had mild symptoms; eighteen patients had moderate symptoms; no patients with severe symptoms were included as they were referred to tertiary care centers with ventilatory support. The mean age of patients with mild symptoms was significantly lower (38.6 years; standard deviation or SD ± 15.8) compared with patients in the moderate category (66.0 years; SD ± 9.09). The most important symptoms identified were fever (43.4%), cough (47.4%), sore throat (29.6%), headache (18.4%), myalgia (17.9%), fatigue (16.8%), chest discomfort (13.8%), chills (12.6%), shortness of breath (11.2%) and loss of taste (10.2%). Twenty-eight homeopathic medicines were prescribed, the most frequently indicated being Bryonia alba (33.3%), Arsenicum album (18.1%), Pulsatilla nigricans (13.8%), Nux vomica (8%), Rhus toxicodendron (7.2%) and Gelsemium sempervirens (5.8%), in 30C potency.
Conclusion Data from the current study reveal that Arsenicum album, Bryonia alba, Pulsatilla nigricans, Nux vomica, Rhus toxicodendron and Gelsemium sempervirens are the most frequently indicated homeopathic medicines. A randomized controlled clinical trial based on this finding is the next step.
• Being a new disease, the first step toward identifying the potential effectiveness of homeopathy in COVID-19 is delineating the clinical presentation of this pandemic.
• A retrospective cohort study on laboratory-confirmed symptomatic patients was thus conducted in a COVID hospital in New Delhi, India.
• Based on symptomatology profile, six homeopathic medicines have been shortlisted for further evaluation.
This study was conducted under the overall supervision of R.K.M., who contributed to the protocol, the critical evaluation of data and scrutiny of the manuscript. A.K. provided key insights into the homeopathic management of the patients, besides ensuring logistic support. Data collection was done by a team of doctors posted in the COVID ward (B.J., P.W., R.T., M.M., B.P.R., D.S.), assisted by As.K., M.K., H.S., R.K., S.K. and S.J. B.J., M.G., T.B. and G.M. helped in the development of the protocol, study design, and manuscript writing. K.R. and R.S. worked on data curation. All authors are responsible for and agreed to the content of the manuscript.
Received: 18 July 2020
Accepted: 11 September 2020
Article published online:
10 February 2021
© 2021. Faculty of Homeopathy. This article is published by Thieme.
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