Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021; 42(01): 078-097
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1713084
Review Article

Metabolic and Endocrine Challenges

Gennaro Martucci
1  Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS-ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad alta Specializzazione), Palermo, Italy
,
Eleonora Bonicolini
1  Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS-ISMETT (Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad alta Specializzazione), Palermo, Italy
,
Dhruv Parekh
2  Critical Care, Birmingham Acute Care Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
,
Onn Shaun Thein
2  Critical Care, Birmingham Acute Care Research Group, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
,
Mario Scherkl
3  Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
,
3  Division of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

This review aims to provide an overview of metabolic and endocrine challenges in the setting of intensive care medicine. These are a group of heterogeneous clinical conditions with a high degree of overlap, as well as nonspecific signs and symptoms. Several diseases involve multiple organ systems, potentially causing catastrophic dysfunction and death. In the majority of cases, endocrine challenges accompany other organ failures or manifest as a complication of prolonged intensive care unit stay and malnutrition. However, when endocrine disorders present as an isolated syndrome, they are a rare and extreme manifestation. As they are uncommon, these can typically challenge both with diagnosis and management. Acute exacerbations may be elicited by triggers such as infections, trauma, surgery, and hemorrhage. In this complex scenario, early diagnosis and prompt treatment require knowledge of the specific endocrine syndrome. Here, we review diabetic coma, hyponatremia, hypercalcemia, thyroid emergencies, pituitary insufficiency, adrenal crisis, and vitamin D deficiency, highlighting diagnostic tools and tricks, and management pathways through defining common clinical presentations.



Publication History

Publication Date:
03 September 2020 (online)

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