Synlett 2023; 34(16): 1911-1914
DOI: 10.1055/a-2097-1051

Spectral and Electrochemical Properties of Common Photocatalysts in Water: A Compendium for Aqueous Photoredox Catalysis

Samuel Gary
Melinda Landry
Steven Bloom
This work was performed in the Department of Medicinal Chemistry at the University of Kansas and supported by the School of Pharmacy, University of Kansas, and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) of the National Institutes of Health (award numbers P20GM113117 and R35GM147169). This work was also supported by the National Institutes of Health Graduate Training at the Biology Chemistry Interface (Grant T32 GM132061) from the National Institutes of General Medical Sciences. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.


Electrochemical potentials of photocatalysts are solvent dependent. One of the largest discrepancies is observed when water is used in place of organic solvents as the reaction media. Unfortunately, the redox potentials for many photocatalysts in water have not been determined, at least under one unifying set of conditions, and this greatly hinders the rational design of sustainable and biocompatible photoredox reactions. Herein, we measure the spectral and electrochemical properties of the most common photoredox catalysts in water and catalog their absorption and fluorescence maxima and ground- and excited-state potentials.

Supporting Information

Publication History

Received: 17 March 2023

Accepted after revision: 22 May 2023

Accepted Manuscript online:
22 May 2023

Article published online:
10 July 2023

© 2023. Thieme. All rights reserved

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