Methods Inf Med 2018; 57(03): 135-140
DOI: 10.3414/ME17-02-0013
Focus Theme – Original Article
Schattauer GmbH

Analysis of Instantaneous Linear, Nonlinear and Complex Cardiovascular Dynamics from Videophotoplethysmography

Gaetano Valenza
1  Bioengineering and Robotics Research Center E Piaggio, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
,
Luca Iozzia
2  Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
,
Luca Cerina
2  Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
,
Luca Mainardi
2  Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
,
Riccardo Barbieri
2  Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received: 08 August 2017

accepted: 15 January 2018

Publication Date:
02 May 2018 (online)

Summary

Background: There is a fast growing interest in the use of non-contact devices for health and performance assessment in humans. In particular, the use of non-contact videophotoplethysmography (vPPG) has been recently demonstrated as a feasible way to extract cardiovascular information. Nevertheless, proper validation of vPPG-derived heartbeat dynamics is still missing.

Objective: We aim to an in-depth validation of time-varying, linear and nonlinear/complex dynamics of the pulse rate variability extracted from vPPG.

Methods: We apply inhomogeneous pointprocess nonlinear models to assess instantaneous measures defined in the time, frequency, and bispectral domains as estimated through vPPG and standard ECG. Instantaneous complexity measures, such as the instantaneous Lyapunov exponents and the recently defined inhomogeneous point-process approximate and sample entropy, were estimated as well. Video recordings were processed using our recently proposed method based on zerophase principal component analysis. Experimental data were gathered from 60 young healthy subjects (age: 24±3 years) undergoing postural changes (rest-to-stand maneuver).

Results: Group averaged results show that there is an overall agreement between linear and nonlinear/complexity indices computed from ECG and vPPG during resting state conditions. However, important differences are found, particularly in the bispectral and complexity domains, in recordings where the subjects has been instructed to stand up.

Conclusions: Although significant differences exist between cardiovascular estimates from vPPG and ECG, it is very promising that instantaneous sympathovagal changes, as well as time-varying complex dynamics, were correctly identified, especially during resting state. In addition to a further improvement of the video signal quality, more research is advocated towards a more precise estimation of cardiovascular dynamics by a comprehensive nonlinear/complex paradigm specifically tailored to the non-contact quantification.