Endoscopy 2007; 39(6): 507-510
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-966362
Original article

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Music in the endoscopy suite: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

D.  Rudin1 , A.  Kiss2 , R.  V.  Wetz3 , V.  M.  Sottile4
  • 1Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, USA
  • 2Department of Research Design and Biostatistics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, and Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 3Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, USA
  • 4Department of Gastroenterology, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, USA
Further Information

Publication History

submitted 22 July 2006

accepted after revision 20 December 2006

Publication Date:
06 June 2007 (online)

Background and study aim: Prior studies have suggested that music therapy can provide stress relief and analgesia. In this meta-analysis we focused on the effects of music therapy on patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.

Materials and methods: A literature search using the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases and a manual search led to the inclusion of six randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of music therapy on patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. After data extraction, four separate meta-analyses were performed: in the three studies that did not use pharmacotherapy (group A), anxiety levels were used as a measure of efficacy; in the three studies in which pharmacotherapy was used (group B), sedation and analgesia requirements and procedure duration times were analyzed.

Results: A total of 641 patients were included in the analysis. In group A, patients receiving music therapy exhibited lower anxiety levels (8.6 % reduction, P = 0.004), compared with controls. In group B, patients receiving music therapy exhibited statistically significant reductions in analgesia requirements (29.7 % reduction, P = 0.001) and procedure times (21 % reduction, P = 0.002), and a reduction in sedation requirements that approached significance (15 % reduction, P = 0.055), in comparison with controls.

Conclusions: Music therapy is an effective tool for stress relief and analgesia in patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures.


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D. Rudin, MD

Department of Medicine

Staten Island University Hospital

475 Seaview Avenue

Staten Island

New York 10305


Fax: +1-718-2266586

Email: drudin@siuh.edu