Endoscopy 2007; 39: E212-E213
DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-966315
Unusual cases and technical notes

© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Indigo carmine chromoendoscopic appearances of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma during double-balloon endoscopy in a patient with celiac disease

M.  Hadithi1 , H.  Akol1 , A.  Al-Toma1 , M.  Jacobs1 , C.  J.  Mulder1
  • 1Small Bowel Diseases Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 July 2007 (online)

Patients with celiac disease have a 28-fold increased risk of developing enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma compared with the general population [1]. Early diagnosis is therefore required to improve their prospects. Indigo carmine chromoendoscopy highlights mucosal irregularities and improves the detection of malignant lesions [2]. Furthermore, it can delineate villous atrophy in celiac disease [3]. This method is commonly used in upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy but this is not yet the case in small-intestinal endoscopy. In this report we describe the chromoendoscopic appearances of jejunal enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, before and after indigo carmine spraying, in a patient who was undergoing a double-balloon endoscopy procedure.

A 68-year-old Caucasian woman with celiac disease who had been on a gluten-free diet for 3 years was referred for double-balloon endoscopy because an abdominal computed tomography scan had shown thickened small-intestinal wall. Endoscopy was performed with a double-balloon endoscopy system (FMH Medical Inc., Veenendaal, The Netherlands). Using a catheter, 10 mL of a 0.1 % solution of indigo carmine was sprayed onto the jejunal mucosa on withdrawal of the endoscope.

Scalloping or loss of folds, a mosaic appearance of the jejunal mucosa, and round or circumferential ulcers (10 - 90 mm along their longitudinal axis) were detected with standard video endoscopy, but the villi were easier to recognize after indigo carmine staining of scalloped jejunal folds ([Figure 1]) and ulcers were also highlighted ([Figure 2], [3]). Histological examination revealed the presence of enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma in biopsies taken from the ulcers and partial to subtotal villous atrophy in the nonulcerated mucosa.

Figure 1 Endoscopic views of scalloped jejunal folds in a patient with celiac disease before dye staining (a) and after spraying with 0.1 % indigo carmine solution (b).

Figure 2 Endoscopic views of a round jejunal ulcer in a patient with celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma before dye staining (a) and after spraying with 0.1 % indigo carmine solution (b).

Figure 3 Chromoendoscopic views of circumferential jejunal ulcers in a patient with celiac disease which were proved histologically to contain enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (0.1 % indigo carmine dye) (a, b).

In comparison with standard endoscopy, indigo carmine chromoendoscopy highlighted areas of villous atrophy [4] and ulcers, but did not add to the visual determination of other abnormalities such as scalloping, loss of folds, or the typical mosaic pattern [5]. The innovative double-balloon endoscopy method is allowing the use of such techniques in deeply located lesions that are not usually accessible by standard endoscopy. Chromoendoscopy appears to be a suitable technique for examining suspicious areas during small-intestinal endoscopy.



M. Hadithi, MD

Department of Gastroenterology

Groene Hart Ziekenhuis

P.O. Box 1098

2800 BB Gouda

The Netherlands

Fax: +31-182-505578

Email: [email protected]