Am J Perinatol 2000; Volume 17(Number 04): 207-218
DOI: 10.1055/s-2000-9424
Copyright © 2000 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA. Tel.: +1(212) 584-4662


Rami Eliakim1 , Ovadia Abulafia2 , David M. Sherer3
  • 1Division of Gastroenterology, Rambam Medical Center, Technion School of Medicine, Haifa, Israel
  • 2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, State University of New York, Health and Science Center at Brooklyn, Brooklyn, New York
  • 3Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics & Gynocology, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York
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Publication History

Publication Date:
31 December 2000 (online)


Hyperemesis gravidarum or pernicious vomiting of pregnancy affects between 0.3% and 2% of all pregnant patients. The objective of this paper is to review current literature pertaining to epidemiology, etiology, symptomatology, complications, treatment, and perinatal outcome of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum. We performed a MEDLINE search of the English literature from 1966 through January 2000 utilizing the keywords: hyperemesis gravidarum, nausea and vomiting, and pregnancy. Current data pertaining to epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis, complications, various treatment modalities, subsequent perinatal outcome and recent developments are presented. Review of the literature supports that hyperemesis gravidarum is a multifactorial disease in which pregnancy-induced hormonal changes associated with concurrent gastrointestinal dysmotility and possible Helicobacter pylori infection function as contributing factors. Therapeutic key elements are mainly supportive in conjunction with antiemetic medication. It appears perinatal outcome is unaffected.