Endoscopy 2000; 32(11): 898-900
DOI: 10.1055/s-2000-8088
Special Topic

© Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York

A New Endoscopic Simulator

S. Bar-Meir
  • Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel
Weitere Informationen


31. Dezember 2000 (online)

Trainees need to perform a certain number of endoscopic procedures to achieve competence. Training on simulators is advantageous because it reduces the number of potentially life-threatening critical mistakes. The change in medical practice that limits education time and patient availability, and the increase in medical legal awareness, have contributed to the greater use of simulators in medical training and education. Simulators are of three types: mechanical, animal, and computer based. Progress in computer technology is expected to promote computer-based simulators. At present, the computer-based simulator is helpful in teaching upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, for diagnostic and some therapeutic procedures. It has been used at workshops and live demonstrations performed during endoscopic meetings. It is predicted that with further technological improvement, training on simulators will become obligatory before performing on humans.


  • 1 Helmreich R L, Foushee H C. Why crew resource management?. In: Weiner EL, Kanki BG, Helmreich RL (eds). Cockpit resource management.  San Diego; Academic Press, 1993: 3-46
  • 2 Dusterberry J C. Introduction to simulation systems.  Society of Photo-Optical Engineers. 1975;  59 141-142
  • 3 Derossis A M, Fried G M, Abrahamowicz M, et al. Development of a model for training and evaluation of laparoscopic skills.  Am J Surg. 1998;  175 482-487
  • 4 Gordon M S, Ewy G A, Feiner J M, et al. A cardiology patient simulator for continuing education of family physicians.  J Fam Pract. 1981;  13 353-356
  • 5 Ewy G A, Feiner J M, Jual D, et al. Test of cardiology patient simulator with students in fourth year electives.  J Med Educ. 1987;  62 736-743
  • 6 Gaba D M, Howard S K, Flanagan B, et al. Assessment of clinical performance during simulated cases using both technical and behavorial ratings.  Anesthesiology. 1998;  89 8-18
  • 7 Schwid H A, O'Donnel D. The anesthesia simulator recorder.  Anesthesiology. 1990;  72 191-197
  • 8 Farthing M JG, Walt R P, Allan R N, et al. A national training program for gastroenterology and hepatology.  Gut. 1966;  38 459-470
  • 9 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Methods of granting hospital privileges to perform gastrointestinal endoscopy. Standards of Training and Practice Committee.  Gastrointest Endosc. 1992;  38 765-767
  • 10 Tassios P S, Ladas S D, Grammenos I, et al. Acquisition of competence in colonoscopy: the learning curve of trainees.  Endoscopy. 1999;  9 702-706
  • 11 Cass O H. Training to competence in gastrointestinal endoscopy: a plea for continuous measuring of objective end points.  Endoscopy. 1999;  9 751-754
  • 12 Rodining C B, Webb W R, Zingarelli W J, et al. Postgraduate surgical flexible endoscopic education.  Ann Surg. 1986;  203 272-274
  • 13 Bowman M A, Wherry D C. Training flexible sigmoidoscopy.  Gastrointest Endosc. 1985;  31 309-312
  • 14 Klug W, Knoch H G. Experimental phantoms for studying the colon.  Z Gesamte Inn Med. 1984;  39 197-199
  • 15 Naor M D. An established porcine model for animates training in diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP.  Endoscopy. 1995;  27 77-80
  • 16 Parasher V K, Toomey P, Clifton V, et al. Simulated sphincterotomy in a pig model.  Gastrointest Endosc. 1995;  41 240-243
  • 17 Hochberger J, Neuman M, Maiss J, et al. EASIE-Erlangen active simulator for interventional endoscopy; a new bio-simulation model; first experience gained in training workshops.  Gastrointest Endosc. 1998;  47 AB116
  • 18 Simbionix Inc. Product brochure. 1999

S. Bar-Meir,M.D. 

Dept. of Gastroenterology Chaim Sheba Medical Center Tel Hashomer and Sackler School of Medicine

52621 Tel Hashomer, Israel

Fax: Fax:+ 972-3-530-2913

eMail: E-mail:barmeir@netvision.net