Horm Metab Res 2016; 48(11): 700-713
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-118458
Review
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

A. Polymeri
1   Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
,
W. V. Giannobile
1   Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
2   Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, College of Engineering, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
,
D. Kaigler
1   Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
2   Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, College of Engineering, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 23 December 2015

accepted 29 September 2016

Publication Date:
21 November 2016 (online)

Abstract

Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are adult multipotent cells, which have the potential to differentiate into cell types of mesodermal origin, namely osteocytes, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. Due to their accessibility and expansion potential, BMSCs have historically held therapeutic promise in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. More recently, it has been demonstrated that not only can bone marrow stromal stem cells directly participate in tissue regeneration, but they also have the capacity to migrate to distant sites of tissue injury, where they can participate in tissue repair either directly through their differentiation or indirectly through paracrine mechanisms. Additionally, they can elicit various immunomodulatory signals, which can attenuate the inflammatory and immune responses. As such, bone marrow stromal stem cells have been explored clinically for treatment of a wide variety of different conditions including bone defects, graft-vs.-host disease, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, neurological diseases, and liver and kidney diseases. This review provides an overview of current clinical applications of bone marrow stromal stem cells and discusses their therapeutic properties, while also addressing limitations of their use. PubMed, Ovid, and Google Scholar online databases were searched using several keywords, including “stem cells”, “tissue engineering”, tissue regeneration” and “clinical trials”. Additionally, Clinical trials.gov was used to locate completed clinical trials using bone marrow derived stem cells.