Int J Sports Med 2016; 37(08): 598-606
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-104198
Physiology & Biochemistry
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

The Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory and Limb Locomotor Muscle Deoxygenation During Exercise with Resistive Inspiratory Loading

L. A. Turner
1   Center for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
S. L. Tecklenburg-Lund
2   Department of Kinesiology, St. Ambrose University, Davenport, United States
R. Chapman
3   Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States
R.-J. Shei
4   Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States
D. P. Wilhite
4   Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States
T. Mickleborough
3   Kinesiology, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted after revision 19 February 2016

Publication Date:
18 May 2016 (online)


We investigated how inspiratory muscle training impacted respiratory and locomotor muscle deoxygenation during submaximal exercise with resistive inspiratory loading. 16 male cyclists completed 6 weeks of either true (n=8) or sham (n=8) inspiratory muscle training. Pre- and post-training, subjects completed 3, 6-min experimental trials performed at ~80%  ˙VO2peak with interventions of either moderate inspiratory loading, heavy inspiratory loading, or maximal exercise imposed in the final 3 min. Locomotor and respiratory muscle oxy-, deoxy-, and total-haemoglobin and myoglobin concentration was continuously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy. Locomotor muscle deoxygenation changes from 80%  ˙VO2peak to heavy inspiratory loading were significantly reduced pre- to post-training from 4.3±5.6 µM to 2.7±4.7 µM. Respiratory muscle deoxygenation was also significantly reduced during the heavy inspiratory loading trial (4.6±3.5 µM to 1.9±1.5 µM) post-training. There was no significant difference in oxy-, deoxy-, or total-haemoglobin and myoglobin during any of the other loading trials, from pre- to post-training, in either group. After inspiratory muscle training, highly-trained cyclists exhibited decreased locomotor and respiratory muscle deoxygenation during exercise with heavy inspiratory loading. These data suggest that inspiratory muscle training reduces oxygen extraction by the active respiratory and limb muscles, which may reflect changes in respiratory and locomotor muscle oxygen delivery.