Planta Med 2016; 82(07): 612-620
DOI: 10.1055/s-0042-102062
Biological and Pharmacological Activity
Original Papers
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Effect of Ginger and Turmeric Rhizomes on Inflammatory Cytokines Levels and Enzyme Activities of Cholinergic and Purinergic Systems in Hypertensive Rats

Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi
1  Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
2  Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Gustavo Roberto Thomé
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Vera Maria Morsch
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Nathieli B. Bottari
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Jucimara Baldissarelli
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Lizielle Souza de Oliveira
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Jeferson Ferraz Goularte
4  Health Basic Sciences Institute, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Adriane Belló-Klein
4  Health Basic Sciences Institute, Department of Physiology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
,
Thiago Duarte
5  Centro de Ciências da Saude, Universidade Luterana do Brazil (ULBRA), Campus Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Marta Duarte
5  Centro de Ciências da Saude, Universidade Luterana do Brazil (ULBRA), Campus Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
,
Aline Augusti Boligon
6  Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
,
Margareth Linde Athayde
6  Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
,
Akintunde Afolabi Akindahunsi
1  Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
,
Ganiyu Oboh
1  Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals Unit, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
,
Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger
3  Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas: Bioquímica Toxicológica, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

received 19 August 2015
revised 15 January 2016

accepted 21 January 2016

Publication Date:
22 March 2016 (online)

Abstract

Inflammation exerts a crucial pathogenic role in the development of hypertension. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) on enzyme activities of purinergic and cholinergic systems as well as inflammatory cytokine levels in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced hypertensive rats. The rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10); groups 1–3 included normotensive control rats, hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats, and hypertensive control rats treated with atenolol (an antihypertensive drug), while groups 4 and 5 included normotensive and hypertensive (Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride) rats treated with 4 % supplementation of turmeric, respectively, and groups 6 and 7 included normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4 % supplementation of ginger, respectively. The animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, 40 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed a significant increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis, adenosine deaminase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in lymphocytes from Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats when compared with the control rats. In addition, an increase in serum butyrylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 and − 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α) with a concomitant decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10) was observed in Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation of both rhizomes was efficient in preventing these alterations in hypertensive rats by decreasing ATP hydrolysis, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities and proinflammatory cytokines in hypertensive rats. Thus, these activities could suggest a possible insight about the protective mechanisms of the rhizomes against hypertension-related inflammation.