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Standardized Cesarean Risk Counseling with Induction: Impact on Racial Disparities in Birth SatisfactionFunding This work was supported by The Penn Presbyterian George and Emily McMichael Harrison Fund for Research in ObGyn, a T32 Training Grant in Reproductive Epidemiology (identifier number: T32-HD007440), and a K23 Mentored Career Development Grant from the NICHD (identifier number: K23 HD102523).
Objective Our prior work demonstrated decreased birth satisfaction for Black women undergoing labor induction. We aimed to determine if implementation of standardized counseling around calculated cesarean risk during labor induction could reduce racial disparities in birth satisfaction.
Study Design We implemented use of a validated calculator that provides an individual cesarean risk score for women undergoing induction into routine care. This prospective cohort study compared satisfaction surveys for 6 months prior to implementation (preperiod: January 2018–June 2018) to 1 year after (postperiod: July 2018–June 2019). Women with full-term (≥37 weeks) singleton gestations with intact membranes and an unfavorable cervix undergoing induction were included. In the postperiod, providers counseled patients on individual cesarean risk at the beginning of induction using standardized scripts. This information was incorporated into care at patient–provider discretion. The validated 10-question Birth Satisfaction Scale-Revised (BSS-R) subdivided into three domains was administered throughout the study. Patients were determined to be “satisfied” or “unsatisfied” if total BSS-R score was above or below the median, respectively. In multivariable analysis, interaction terms evaluated the differential impact of the calculator on birth satisfaction by race (Black vs. non-Black women).
Results A total of 1,008 of 1,236 (81.6%) eligible women completed the BSS-R (preperiod: 330 [79.7%] versus postperiod: 678 [82.5%], p = 0.23), 63.8% of whom self-identified as Black. In the pre-period, Black women were 50% less likely to be satisfied than non-Black women, even when controlling for differences in parity (Black: 39.0% satisfied vs. non-Black: 53.9%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30–0.79). In the postperiod, there was no difference in satisfaction by race (Black: 43.7% satisfied vs. non-Black: 44.0%, aOR = 0.97. 95% CI: 0.71–1.33). Therefore, disparities in birth satisfaction were no longer present at postimplementation (interaction p = 0.03).
Conclusion Implementation of standardized counseling with a validated calculator to predict cesarean risk after labor induction is associated with a decrease in racial disparities in birth satisfaction.
Preintervention, Black women were less likely to have above-median birth satisfaction.
We implemented standardized counseling around cesarean risk with labor induction.
Implementation was associated with reduced racial disparities in birth satisfaction scores.
Keywordsbirth satisfaction - BSS-R - cesarean delivery - cesarean risk - counseling - disparities - implementation - labor induction - satisfaction - standardization
Received: 25 May 2021
Accepted: 03 October 2021
Article published online:
16 November 2021
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