Facial Plast Surg 2021; 37(04): 516-527
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1727246
Original Article

Facial Soft Tissue Injuries in Pediatric Patients

Sam Schild
1  Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York
2  Department of Otolaryngology, Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, New York
,
Tatiana Reis Puntarelli
3  Department of Anesthesiology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York
,
Margarita delaPena
3  Department of Anesthesiology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York
,
Adam Johnson
4  Department of Otolaryngology, University of Arkansas Medical School, Arkansas Children's Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas
,
Sydney C. Butts
1  Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York
2  Department of Otolaryngology, Kings County Hospital Center, Brooklyn, New York
5  Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, New York
› Author Affiliations

Abstract

Soft tissue injuries of the head and neck are a common reason for medical evaluation and treatment in pediatric populations with some unique and important considerations when compared with adults. The incidence and type of injuries continue to evolve with the adoption of new safety measures, technology advancements, and education of the general population. The goal of this article is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of the evaluation and management of pediatric soft tissue trauma including the initial workup, physical examination, appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy, and setting for surgical repair. Additionally, the pediatric anesthetic considerations for evaluation and repair in regard to local anesthesia, sedation, and general anesthesia are described in detail. There is a focus on dog bites, perinatal injuries, and child abuse as these entities are distinctive to a pediatric population and have particular management recommendations. Lastly, application of the reconstructive ladder as it applies to children is supported with specific case examples and figures. Although there are many parallels to the management of soft tissue injury in adults, we will highlight the special situations that occur in pediatric populations, which are imperative for the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon to understand.



Publication History

Publication Date:
14 May 2021 (online)

© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA