Subscribe to RSS
Physical Examination and Ultrasound Evaluation of Patients with Superficial Venous Disease
Systematic and standardized evaluation of superficial venous disease, guided by knowledge of the various clinical presentations, venous anatomy, and pathophysiology of reflux, is essential for appropriate diagnosis and optimal treatment. Duplex ultrasonography is the standard for delineating venous anatomy, detecting anatomic variants, and identifying the origin of venous insufficiency. This article reviews tools and techniques essential for physical examination and ultrasound assessment of patients with superficial venous disease.
Keywordssuperficial venous disease - physical examination - duplex ultrasonography - interventional radiology
J.M.M. receives grant funding from Angiodynamics Inc.; is advisory board member of Argon Medical Inc. and Boston Scientific Inc.; and is consultant for BD Bard, Inari Medical, Penumbra Medical Inc., Thrombolex Inc., and Pavmed Inc.
03 June 2021 (online)
© 2021. Thieme. All rights reserved.
Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.
333 Seventh Avenue, 18th Floor, New York, NY 10001, USA
- 1 Eberhardt RT, Raffetto JD. Chronic venous insufficiency. Circulation 2014; 130 (04) 333-346
- 2 McLafferty RB, Lohr JM, Caprini JA. et al. Results of the national pilot screening program for venous disease by the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg 2007; 45 (01) 142-148
- 3 Fan CM. Venous pathophysiology. Semin Intervent Radiol 2005; 22 (03) 157-161
- 4 Baliyan V, Tajmir S, Hedgire SS, Ganguli S, Prabhakar AM. Lower extremity venous reflux. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2016; 6 (06) 533-543
- 5 Bergan JJ, Schmid-Schönbein GW, Smith PD, Nicolaides AN, Boisseau MR, Eklof B. Chronic venous disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355 (05) 488-498
- 6 Wells QS. Varicose veins reach new heights. Circulation 2018; 138 (25) 2881-2883
- 7 Vasquez MA, Rabe E, McLafferty RB. et al; American Venous Forum Ad Hoc Outcomes Working Group. Revision of the venous clinical severity score: venous outcomes consensus statement: special communication of the American Venous Forum Ad Hoc Outcomes Working Group. J Vasc Surg 2010; 52 (05) 1387-1396
- 8 Lurie F, Passman M, Meisner M. et al. CEAP classification system and reporting standard, revision 2020. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2020; 8 (03) 342-352
- 9 Alwalid O, Makamure J, Cheng QG. et al. Radiological aspect of Klippel-Trénaunay syndrome: a case series with review of literature. Curr Med Sci 2018; 38 (05) 925-931
- 10 Zygmunt JA. Duplex ultrasound for chronic venous insufficiency. J Invasive Cardiol 2014; 26 (11) E149-E155
- 11 Caggiati A, Bergan JJ, Gloviczki P, Jantet G, Wendell-Smith CP, Partsch H. International Interdisciplinary Consensus Committee on Venous Anatomical Terminology. Nomenclature of the veins of the lower limbs: an international interdisciplinary consensus statement. J Vasc Surg 2002; 36 (02) 416-422
- 12 Caggiati A, Bergan JJ, Gloviczki P, Eklof B, Allegra C, Partsch H. International Interdisciplinary Consensus Committee on Venous Anatomical Terminology. Nomenclature of the veins of the lower limb: extensions, refinements, and clinical application. J Vasc Surg 2005; 41 (04) 719-724
- 13 Oğuzkurt L. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the lower extremity superficial veins. Diagn Interv Radiol 2012; 18 (04) 423-430
- 14 Kockaert M, de Roos KP, van Dijk L, Nijsten T, Neumann M. Duplication of the great saphenous vein: a definition problem and implications for therapy. Dermatol Surg 2012; 38 (01) 77-82
- 15 Caggiati A, Mendoza E. Segmental hypoplasia of the great saphenous vein and varicose disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2004; 28 (03) 257-261
- 16 Deniz S, Tureli D, Akpinar B, Oguzkurt L. A potential therapeutic pitfall in the treatment of venous reflux due to variant planar anatomy of varicose segments. Phlebology 2018; 33 (07) 470-474
- 17 Ghosh A, Chaudhury S. Morphology of saphenous nerve in cadavers: a guide to saphenous block and surgical interventions. Anat Cell Biol 2019; 52 (03) 262-268
- 18 Cestaro G, Furino E, Solimeno G. et al. The role of superficial epigastric vein sparing in the treatment of chronic venous disease: a retrospective study. Acta Phlebol 2015; 15 (03) 143-147
- 19 Kerver ALA, van der Ham AC, Theeuwes HP. et al. The surgical anatomy of the small saphenous vein and adjacent nerves in relation to endovenous thermal ablation. J Vasc Surg 2012; 56 (01) 181-188
- 20 Meissner MH. Lower extremity venous anatomy. Semin Intervent Radiol 2005; 22 (03) 147-156
- 21 Kuyumcu G, Salazar GM, Prabhakar AM, Ganguli S. Minimally invasive treatments for perforator vein insufficiency. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2016; 6 (06) 593-598
- 22 Gloviczki P, Comerota AJ, Dalsing MC. et al. The care of patients with varicose veins and associated chronic venous diseases: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum. J Vasc Surg 2011; 53 (5-Suppl): 2S-48S