Facial Plast Surg 2021; 37(06): 735-740
DOI: 10.1055/s-0041-1726443
Original Article

Maxillofacial Bony Considerations in Facial Transplantation

1   Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas
Anne E. Gunter
2   Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington
Yadranko Ducic
1   Facial Plastic Surgery Associates, Fort Worth, Texas
Likith Reddy
3   Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas
› Author Affiliations


Alloplastic facial transplantation has become a new rung on the proverbial reconstructive ladder for severe facial wounds in the past couple of decades. Since the first transfer including bony components in 2006, numerous facial allotransplantations across many countries have been successfully performed, many incorporating multiple bony elements of the face. There are many unique considerations to facial transplantation of bone, however, beyond the considerations of simple soft tissue transfer. Herein, we review the current literature and considerations specific to bony facial transplantation focusing on the pertinent surgical anatomy, preoperative planning needs, intraoperative harvest and inset considerations, and postoperative protocols.


This work does not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army or Department of Defense.

Publication History

Publication Date:
20 April 2021 (online)

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