Usability Evaluation of User Requirement–Based Teleconsultation Robots: A Preliminary Report from South KoreaFunding This material is based on work supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea) under the Industrial Technology Innovation Program. No.10063098, Telepresence robot system development for the support of POC (Point Of Care) service associated with ICT technology.
Background Telepresence robots used to deliver a point-of-care (POC) consultation system that may provide value to enable effective decision making by healthcare providers at care sites.
Objectives This study aimed to evaluate usability of teleconsultation robots, based on endusers' needs, that can improve acceptance in future robot applications.
Methods This is a single group postdesign study using mixed methods to assess the usability of teleconsultation robots using scenarios. To collect opinions from various departments, 15 nurses or physicians currently working at medical institutions in Korea were selected using purposive sampling. The usability evaluation was conducted on healthcare providers twice at the simulation center; the think-aloud method was used and surveys and interviews were conducted to identify problems or improvements that may arise from the use of robots in hospital settings.
Results The results showed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and satisfaction level each scored 4 points or higher out of 7 points, showing usability of midhigh level. Camera angle control and robot driving functions were the most difficult. Other basic robot user interface was shown to be relatively easy. There was no difference in usability depending on the characteristics of the evaluator. Some functions including user interface were modified based on the usability test.
Conclusion Using robots in health care institutions may support effective communication among healthcare providers, thus contributing to health care improvement.
Received: 23 March 2020
Accepted: 01 July 2020
30 October 2020 (online)
Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Stuttgart · New York
- 1 Tulu B, Chatterjee S, Maheshwari M. Telemedicine taxonomy: a classification tool. Telemed J E Health 2007; 13 (03) 349-358
- 2 Latifi R, Gunn JK, Bakiu E. et al. Access to specialized care through telemedicine in limited-resource country: Initial 1,065 teleconsultations in Albania. Telemed J E Health 2016; 22 (12) 1024-1031
- 3 Wang TT, Li JM, Zhu CR. et al. Assessment of utilization and cost-effectiveness of telemedicine program in western regions of China: a 12-year study of 249 hospitals across 112 cities. Telemed J E Health 2016; 22 (11) 909-920
- 4 Latifi R, Olldashi F, Dogjani A, Dasho E, Boci A, El-Menyar A. Telemedicine for neurotrauma in Albania: initial results from case series of 146 patients. World Neurosurg 2018; 112: e747-e753
- 5 Kim J. Use of Robots as a Creative Approach in Healthcare ICT. Healthc Inform Res 2018; 24 (03) 155-156
- 6 Lee HS, Kim J. Scenario-Based Assessment of User Needs for Point-of-Care Robots. Healthc Inform Res 2018; 24 (01) 12-21
- 7 Lu JM, Hsu YL. Telepresence robots for medical and homecare applications. In: Zhou M, Li H-Z, Weijnen M. , eds. Contemporary Issues in Systems Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2015: 725-735
- 8 On-call physician-robot dispatched to remote Labrador. Accessed July 17,2020 at: http://nationtalk.ca/story/on-call-physician-robot-dispatched-to-remote-labrador
- 9 Lee H, Kim J, Kim S, Kong HJ, Ryu H. Investigating the need for point-of-care robots to support teleconsultation. Telemed J E Health [serial online] 2019. Accessed October 1, 2019 at: https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2018.0255
- 10 Nielsen J. Estimating the number of subjects needed for a thinking aloud test. Int J Hum Comput Stud 1994; 41: 385-397
- 11 Van Someren MW, Barnard YF, Sandberg JAC. The Think Aloud Method: APractical Approach to Modelling Cognitive. London, United Kingdom: Academic Press; 1994
- 12 Nielsen J. Usability inspection methods. Paper presented at: Conference companion on Human factors in computing systems. ACM Digital Library: CHI '94: Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1994: 413-414
- 13 Davis FD. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. Manage Inf Syst Q 1989; 13: 319-340
- 14 Wang Y-S, Liao Y-W. The conceptualization and measurement of m-commerce user satisfaction. Comput Human Behav 2007; 23: 381-398
- 15 Ng W. Can we teach digital natives digital literacy?. ComputEduc 2012; 59: 1065-1078
- 16 Kim M, You NK, Kim Y, Hahn S, Yun MH. Effects of ICT Ability of the elderly people for the acceptability of conversational agent. Paper presented at: ESK Conference 2017; Jeju
- 17 Farzanfar R, Finkelstein J, Friedman RH. Testing the usability of two automated home-based patient-management systems. J Med Syst 2004; 28 (02) 143-153
- 18 Koceski S, Koceska N. Evaluation of an assistive telepresence robot for elderly healthcare. J Med Syst 2016; 40 (05) 121
- 19 Tiwari P, Warren J, Day K. et al. Feasibility study of a robotic medication assistant for the elderly. In Proceedings of the Twelfth Australasian User Interface Conference 2011;117: 57-66
- 20 de Graaf MM, Ben Allouch S, van Dijk JA. Why would I use this in my home? A model of domestic social robot acceptance. Hum Comput Interact 2019; 34: 115-173
- 21 Eimontaite I, Gwilt I, Cameron D. et al. Language-free graphical signage improves human performance and reduces anxiety when working collaboratively with robots. Int J AdvManufTechnol 2019; 100: 55-73
- 22 Broadbent E, Stafford R, MacDonald B. Acceptance of healthcare robots for the older population: review and future directions. Int J Soc Robot 2009; 1: 319
- 23 Wilson LS, Maeder AJ. Recent directions in telemedicine: review of trends in research and practice. Healthc Inform Res 2015; 21 (04) 213-222
- 24 Demiris G, Charness N, Krupinski E. et al. The role of human factors in telehealth. Telemed J E Health 2010; 16 (04) 446-453
- 25 Jokela T, Koivumaa J, Pirkola J, Salminen P, Kantola N. Methods for quantitative usability requirements: a case study on the development of the user interface of a mobile phone. Pers Ubiquitous Comput 2006; 10: 345-355
- 26 Ray RA, Fried O, Lindsay D. Palliative care professional education via video conference builds confidence to deliver palliative care in rural and remote locations. BMC Health Serv Res 2014; 14: 272
- 27 Agrigoroaie RM, Tapus A. Developing a healthcare robot with personalized behaviors and social skills for the elderly. 2016 11th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) 2016: 589-590
- 28 Moffatt JJ, Eley DS. The reported benefits of telehealth for rural Australians. Aust Health Rev 2010; 34 (03) 276-281
- 29 Góngora Alonso S, Hamrioui S, de la Torre Díez I, Motta Cruz E, López-Coronado M, Franco M. Social robots for people with aging and dementia: a systematic review of literature. Telemed J E Health 2019; 25 (07) 533-540
- 30 Conde JG, De S, Hall RW, Johansen E, Meglan D, Peng GC. Telehealth innovations in health education and training. Telemed J E Health 2010; 16 (01) 103-106