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Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Are Hypotheses More than Evidences?Funding None.
In spite of the increasing, accumulating knowledge on the novel pandemic coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), questions on the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection transmission from mothers to fetuses or neonates during pregnancy and peripartum period remain pending and have not been addressed so far. SARS-CoV-2, a RNA single-stranded virus, has been detected in the amniotic fluid, in the cord blood and in the placentas of the infected women. In the light of these findings, the theoretical risk of intrauterine infection for fetuses, or of peripartum infection occurring during delivery for neonates, has a biological plausibility. The extent of this putative risk might, however, vary during the different stages of pregnancy, owing to several variables (physiological modifications of the placenta, virus receptors' expression, or delivery route). This brief review provides an overview of the current evidence in this area. Further data, based on national and international multicenter registries, are needed not only to clearly assess the extent of the risk for vertical transmission, but also to ultimately establish solid guidelines and consistent recommendations.
Questions on the COVID-19 infection transmission from mothers to fetuses or neonates during pregnancy and peripartum period remain pending so far.
The theoretical risk of intrauterine infection for fetuses, or of neonatal infection during delivery for neonates, has a biological plausibility.
A caution is recommended in the interpretation of clinical and laboratory data in neonates.
C.A. and D.U.D.R. conceptualized and designed the review, analyzed the reported cases, drafted the initial manuscript, and reviewed and revised the manuscript. C.T., L.C., M.C., P.M., and M.S reviewed the extracted data and analyzed the cases and reviewed and revised the ﬁnal manuscript including all tables and the ﬁgure. All authors critically reviewed the manuscript for important intellectual content. All authors approved the ﬁnal manuscript as submitted and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
A shorter communication on this topic in Italian has been initially sent to the bulletin of the Italian Society of Neonatology (SIN Informa).
05 August 2020 (online)
Thieme Medical Publishers
333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
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