Methods Inf Med 2020; 59(01): 018-030
DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1710382
Original Article

An Augmented Model with Inferred Blood Features for the Self-diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

Tianshu Zhou
1  Engineering Research Center of EMR and Intelligent Expert System, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
2  Connected Healthcare Big Data Research Center, Zhejiang Lab, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
,
Ying Zhang
1  Engineering Research Center of EMR and Intelligent Expert System, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
2  Connected Healthcare Big Data Research Center, Zhejiang Lab, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
,
Chengkai Wu
1  Engineering Research Center of EMR and Intelligent Expert System, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
,
Chao Shen
3  Health Management Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
,
Jingsong Li
1  Engineering Research Center of EMR and Intelligent Expert System, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
2  Connected Healthcare Big Data Research Center, Zhejiang Lab, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
,
Zhong Liu
3  Health Management Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China
› Author Affiliations
Funding This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81771936), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2018YFC0116901), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2020FZZX002-08) and the Major Scientific Project of Zhejiang Lab (No. 2018DG0ZX01).

Abstract

Background and Objectives The penetration rate of physical examinations in China is substantially lower than that in developed countries. Therefore, an auxiliary approach that does not depend on hospital health checks for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is needed.

Methods In this study, we proposed an augmented method with inferred blood features that uses self-care inputs available at home for the auxiliary diagnosis of MetS. The dataset used for modeling contained data on 91,420 individuals who had at least 2 consecutive years of health checks. We trained three separate models using a regularized gradient-boosted decision tree. The first model used only home-based features; additional blood test data (including triglyceride [TG] data, fasting blood glucose data, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] data) were included in the second model. However, in the augmented approach, the blood test data were manipulated using multivariate imputation by chained equations prior to inclusion in the third model. The performance of the three models for MetS auxiliary diagnosis was then quantitatively compared.

Results The results showed that the third model exhibited the highest classification accuracy for MetS in comparison with the other two models (area under the curve [AUC]: 3rd vs. 2nd vs. 1st = 0.971 vs. 0.950 vs. 0.905, p < 0.001). We further revealed that with full sets of the three measurements from earlier blood test data, the classification accuracy of MetS can be further improved (AUC: without vs. with = 0.971 vs. 0.993). However, the magnitude of improvement was not statistically significant at the 1% level of significance (p = 0.014).

Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of the third model for MetS homecare applications and lend novel insights into innovative research on the health management of MetS. Further validation and implementation of our proposed model might improve quality of life and ultimately benefit the general population.

Note

Human and/or animal subjects were not included in the project.




Publication History

Received: 04 December 2018

Accepted: 15 March 2020

Publication Date:
24 August 2020 (online)

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