Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020; 41(01): 053-068
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3400544
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

New Insights on Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis

Flá vio de Queiroz-Telles
1  Department of Public Health, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Parana, Parana, Brazil
,
Paula Massaroni Peçanha Pietrobom
2  Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Marcos Rosa Júnior
3  Section of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil
,
Rodrigo de Melo Baptista
3  Section of Radiology, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil
,
Paulo Mendes Peçanha
4  Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Espírito Santo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
30 January 2020 (online)

Abstract

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is one of the most relevant systemic endemic mycoses in Latin American countries, especially in South American countries, with endemic and hyperendemic areas. The real burden of PCM may be underestimated because of a lack of compulsory case notification. Recent phylogenetic data revealed that Paracoccidioides brasiliensis comprises several cryptic species including P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii. However, the genetic biodiversity of Paracoccidioides does not affect the clinical manifestations or therapeutic response to therapy. Lung involvement is a common finding, especially in patients experiencing the chronic form of the disease, and, because of its similarities with tuberculosis, clinicians must be alert to the possibility of PCM in patients with chronic respiratory manifestations and epidemiological risk factors for this fungal disease.