Semin Liver Dis 2020; 40(02): 101-110
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-3399561
Review Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Epidemiology of Liver Cancer in Latin America: Current and Future Trends

Flair Jose Carrilho
1  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
2  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Denise Cerqueira Paranaguá-Vezozzo
1  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
2  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Aline Lopes Chagas
1  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
2  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Regiane Saraiva de Souza Melo Alencar
1  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Division of Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
2  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
,
Leonardo Gomes da Fonseca
2  São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group – Hospital das Clínicas Complex, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
11 November 2019 (online)

Abstract

Over 38,000 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are estimated to occur in Latin America annually. The region is characterized by sociocultural heterogeneity and economic disparities, which impose barriers in addressing this major health issue. A significant proportion of patients are still diagnosed in the later stages of the disease, although efforts to implement effective screening programs have been reported by referral centers. While viral hepatitis remains the predominant etiology of liver disease among HCC cases in Latin America, a high prevalence of fatty liver disease in the region is a matter of concern, reflecting the current scenario in many Western countries. In addition, other risk factors such as alcohol, aflatoxin, and early-onset HCC in hepatitis B virus infection contribute to the burden of HCC in Latin America. Interventions to increase screening coverage, expand healthcare access, and implement continuing medical training are key challenges to be overcome.