Neonatal Encephalopathy and SIADH during RSV Infection
25 June 2019 (online)
Objective This report discusses the neurological involvement in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in neonates.
Study Design We present a case report of a 2-month-old infant affected by a bronchiolitis RSV-positive, with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) correlated seizure and encephalopathy.
Results RSV infection can be associated as a serious disease in newborns involving the central nervous system (CNS) and causing seizures or acute encephalopathy. RSV may be also responsible for SIADH and seizures associated with hyponatremia. The RSV related encephalopathy could be caused by different mechanisms, such as direct viral invasion of the CNS or by indirect mechanism mediated by inflammatory cytokines. In addition, it can be favored by severe hyponatremia and SIADH that can cause cerebral edema. Some studies highlight that this virus-related encephalopathy lead to sudden infant death syndrome.
Conclusion In presence of neurological involvement during RSV-infection must be taken in consideration to performing instrumental test to detect cerebral edema. In addiction could be useful to dose inflammatory cytokines, and to consider the immune-modulatory therapy.
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