Morphometric Analysis of the External Aperture of the Carotid Canal in Skulls of South Indian Origin
03 August 2018
02 November 2018
20 December 2018 (online)
Background and Objective The carotid canal (CC) is a bent passage in the petrous temporal bone from where the internal carotid artery (ICA) goes inside the skull. The shape, location and measurements of the CC are clinically very important in cases of skull base surgery, since the ICA has to be identified and isolated throughout its petrous course. Therefore, the present study was performed to measure and locate the CC from various important anatomical landmarks.
Materials and Method The present study was conducted on 68 dry skulls of unknown gender. Various measurements and distances of the CC from various important landmarks were taken. The shape of the CC was also noted. Measurements were taken with the help of a screw-adjusted compass and of digital Vernier calipers. From the above measurements, mean and standard deviation (mean ± SD), median, range, and mode were calculated. Data analysis was done with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA).
Results The mean length of the CC on the right and left sides was 7.76 and 7.89 mm, respectively. The mean breadth of the CC on the right and left sides was 5.81 and 6.32 mm, respectively. The most common shape of the CC was round both on the right and left sides in 49.20% and in 53.12% of the cases.
Conclusion The results of the present study will be useful in the performance of neurosurgical procedures, thereby preventing unpleasant complications.
- 1 Berkoviz BK, Moxham BJ. Textbook of Head and Neck Anatomy. London: Wolfe Medical Publications; 1988: 1-33
- 2 Standring S. The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. In: Standing S. , editor-in-chief, Gray‘s Anatomy. 39th ed. London: Elsevier Limited; 2006: 460-465
- 3 Sprinzl GM, Mockenhaupt J, Koebke J, Thumfart WF. [The temporal bone]. HNO 1992; 40 (06) 206-214
- 4 Lang J, Hack C. Uber Lage und Lagevariationen der Kanalsysteme im Os temporale. Teil I. Kanäle der Pars petrosa zwischen Margo superior und Meatus acusticus internus. HNO 1985; 33 (04) 176-179
- 5 Somesh S, Sridevi HB, Murlimanju BV, Shakunthala P. Morphological and Morphometric study of carotid canal in Indian Population. Int J Biomed Res 2014; 5 (07) 455-460
- 6 Resnick DK, Subach BR, Marion DW. The significance of carotid canal involvement in basilar cranial fracture. Neurosurgery 1997; 40 (06) 1177-1181
- 7 Given II CA, Huang-Hellinger F, Baker MD, Chepuri NB, Morris PP. Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery: case reports and review of the collateral circulation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2001; 22 (10) 1953-1959
- 8 Florio F, Balzano S, Nardella M. , et al. Congenital absence of the internal carotid artery. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 1999; 22 (01) 74-78
- 9 Watanabe A, Omata T, Koizumi H, Nakano S, Takeuchi N, Kinouchi H. Bony carotid canal hypoplasia in patients with moyamoya disease. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2010; 5 (06) 591-594
- 10 Quint DJ, Boulos RS, Spera TD. Congenital absence of the cervical and petrous internal carotid artery with intercavernous anastomosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 1989; 10 (02) 435-439
- 11 Aslan A, Balyan FR, Taibah A, Sanna M. Anatomic relationships between surgical landmarks in type b and type c infratemporal fossa approaches. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 1998; 255 (05) 259-264
- 12 Lang J, Schafhauser O, Hoffmann S. Uber die postnatale Entwicklung der transbasalen Schädelpforten: Canalis caroticus, Foramen jugulare, Canalis hypoglossalis, Canalis condylaris und Foramen magnum. Anat Anz 1983; 153 (04) 315-357 (lena)
- 13 Calgüner E, Turgut HB, Gözil R, Tunç E, Sevim A, Keskil S. Measurements of the carotid canal in skulls from Anatolia. Acta Anat (Basel) 1997; 158 (02) 130-132
- 14 Sharma PK, Lakhtakia PK, Bisaria KK. A variant of the floor of the carotid canal. Ann Anat 1993; 175 (02) 199
- 15 Ahmed MM, Jeelani M, Tarnum A. Anthropometry: A Comparative Study of Right and Left Sided Foramen Ovale, Jugular Foramen and Carotid Canal. Int J Sci Stud 2015; 3 (05) 88-94
- 16 Shaikh VG, Kulkarni PR. A study of morphology, morphometry, symmetry and development of external opening of carotid canal with comparison in male, female and foetus. Int J Anat Res. 2014; 2 (04) 797-805
- 17 Abo AM, Ashraf Y, Adel N, Abdel M. Morphometric Study of the Carotid Canal. Life Sci J 2013; 10 (10) 2559-2562
- 18 Lang J, Schreiber T. Uber Form und Lage des Foramen jugulare (Fossa jugularis), des Canalis caroticus und des Foramen stylomastoideum sowie deren postnatale Lageveränderungen. HNO 1983; 31 (03) 80-87