Semin Speech Lang 2018; 39(04): C1-C10
DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1667356
Continuing Education Self-Study Program
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Self-Assessment Questions

Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
24 August 2018 (online)

This section provides a review. Mark each statement on the Answer Sheet according to the factual materials contained in this issue and the opinions of the authors.

Article One (pp. 299–312)

  1. A major idea behind the multifactorial dynamic pathways theory is:

    • That stuttering is determined by a single cause.

    • That motor, emotional, and linguistic factors may all influence a person's fluency.

    • That stuttering is likely caused by atypical development of an isolated brain region.

    • That factors influencing fluency will never be identified.

    • Both A and C are correct.

  2. In our research studies, we collect data from children who stutter including:

    • Speech samples of at least 750 syllables.

    • Standardized assessments of phonological and expressive language development.

    • ERPs during linguistic processing tasks.

    • Lip and jaw movements produced during speech.

    • All of the above.

  3. When diagnosing a child with stuttering, we found that:

    • The WSI was the most sensitive index of stuttering.

    • An essential part of a stuttering diagnosis is to learn how the child's fluency fluctuates in different communication contexts.

    • Language samples should be used exclusively to diagnose stuttering.

    • Caregiver ratings correlated with the TOCS and WSI.

    • Clinician's opinions may be biased and should not heavily weigh into an evidence-based diagnostic model.

  4. Which of the following statements is true about the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) research?

    • They provide a sensitive index of linguistic processing.

    • They are most often used to assess brain activity while a subject is speaking.

    • They are an invasive neuroimaging technique.

    • No differences were found between children who recovered or persisted in stuttering on a semantic processing task.

    • None of the above.

  5. Findings from our studies of speech motor, linguistic, and emotional factors:

    • Were predictive of stuttering recovery or persistence in preschool children.

    • Distinguished preschool children who stutter from their fluent peers.

    • Revealed that language is critically impaired in most children who stutter.

    • Found that all children who stutter show less coordinated articulatory movement patterns.

    • Both A and B are correct.

    Article Two (pp. 313–323)

  6. To whom is the diagnosogenic theory attributed?

    • Johnson.

    • Van Riper.

    • Conture.

    • Guitar.

    • Onslow.

  7. For which type of child is the first level of intervention, education and information, recommended?

    • The child is distressed.

    • The parent shows signs of concern.

    • The child is nearing school age.

    • The child has been stuttering for less than 3 months.

    • The child presents with a mild language delay.

  8. A contemporary indirect treatment has been developed by:

    • Onslow.

    • Costello.

    • Trajkovski.

    • Runyan.

    • Gottwald.

  9. Which of the following is an indirect treatment?

    • The Lidcombe Program.

    • The Westmead Program.

    • Increased Length and Complexity of Utterance Program.

    • Palin parent–child interaction therapy.

    • Fluency shaping therapy.

  10. Which is true of the model of stepped care proposed in this article?

    • Every child receives all levels of treatment.

    • Every child starts at level 1.

    • Risk factors contributing to persistence in stuttering can be used as a guide to decision making.

    • The model describes a set sequence of events.

    • Children are never prioritized in a waiting list.

    Article Three (pp. 324–332)

  11. Should parents defer exposing their child to a second language until after age 5, particularly if the child is showing signs of stuttering?

    • Data suggest that it depends on the language that the child is attempting to learn.

    • No, there are not sufficient data to suggest deferring exposure to a second language would deter the onset and/or persistence of stuttering.

    • Yes, recent data support deferring any exposure to a second language until age 5 to minimize risk for onset and development of stuttering.

    • Yes, data suggest parents should defer exposure until age 8.

    • Yes, data suggest waiting until adulthood (at least 18 years of age).

  12. Which of the following statements reflect the challenges with regard to our present understanding of the manifestation of stuttering in speakers of more than one language?

    • Bilingualism has not been defined with consistency or depth with regard to the core factors of history, function, and proficiency.

    • Monolingual English-speaking guidelines have been and continue to be used to identify the presence of stuttering in bilinguals/multilinguals.

    • Typically fluent bilinguals produce the types of speech disfluencies considered to be stuttering-like in monolingual English speakers.

    • Typically fluent bilinguals produce speech disfluencies at a frequency that would be indicative of stuttering in monolingual English speakers.

    • All of the above.

  13. Which of the following is true about the increased risk of false-positive identification of stuttering in bilingual children?

    • There are no data to inform us about the risk of false-positive identification of stuttering in bilingual children.

    • Preliminary data suggest there is minimal to no risk for false-positive identification of stuttering in bilingual children.

    • Preliminary data suggest there is a risk for false-positive identification of stuttering in bilingual children.

    • Preliminary data suggest bilingual children are less likely to stutter than monolingual children, regardless of the possibility of false-positive identification.

    • None of the above.

  14. Which of the following statements is not supported by the preliminary data reviewed in this article with regard to differential diagnosis of stuttering in children who speak two languages?

    • Monolingual guidelines can be reliably and validly used to determine diagnosis, prevalence, risk, etc., in bilinguals.

    • Atypical tension appears to be a critical consideration when completing a differential diagnosis of stuttering in bilinguals.

    • Clinicians should collect samples in both languages rather than sampling only the dominant language, because the nature of the language being produced is an important consideration in analyzing disfluency.

    • The frequency and types of speech disfluencies produced by typically fluent children who speak more than one language exceed and overlap with the guidelines indicative of stuttering in monolingual English speakers.

    • None of the above; all of the above are supported by the preliminary data reviewed in this article.

  15. Which of the following disfluencies considered to be stuttering-like per monolingual English guidelines are not produced by typically fluent bilingual children?

    • Monosyllabic word repetitions.

    • Syllable repetitions.

    • Sound repetitions.

    • A and C.

    • None of the above; all of the above are produced by typically fluent bilingual children.

    Article Four (pp. 333–341)

  16. Smith's multifactorial model proposes that the onset and development of stuttering is related to the interaction between the speech motor system, genetics, emotion, cognition, and language factors and

    • The child's behaviors.

    • The child's environment.

    • The child's beliefs.

    • The child's health.

    • The child's family.

  17. The CALMS model provides a unified framework for

    • Dealing with emotional aspects of stuttering.

    • Managing the motor aspects of stuttering.

    • Assessing and treating children who stutter.

    • Treating linguistic aspects of stuttering.

    • Introducing fluency shaping strategies.

  18. The Cognitive component of the CALMS model includes which aspects of stuttering?

    • Knowledge and thoughts about stuttering.

    • Negative feelings and avoidance behaviors.

    • The motor features of stuttering.

    • The impact of listeners and situations on stuttering.

    • The inclusion of families in the therapy process.

  19. Teaching children to advocate for themselves regarding their stuttering is within which component of treatment?

    • Cognitive.

    • Affective.

    • Linguistic.

    • Social.

    • Motor.

  20. One goal for therapy might be “The child will explain five facts about stuttering to a peer.” This goal would be addressing which component of a multidimensional treatment program?

    • Motor.

    • Cognitive.

    • Genetic.

    • Affective.

    • Social.

    Article Five (pp. 342–355)

  21. “Bullying” differs from “teasing” in that…

    • “Bullying” is good-nature fun, while “teasing” is comments designed to hurt.

    • “Bullying” is something that only happens between people who are not friends.

    • “Teasing” is never appropriate, whereas “bullying” is okay sometimes.

    • “Teasing” is good-nature fun, while “bullying” is comments designed to hurt.

    • Other people (bystanders) are never involved in “teasing.”

  22. “Bystanders” are best defined as…

    • Only those people who are physically present when bullying occurs.

    • Friends of the child who bullies.

    • Friends of the child who is being bullied.

    • Others in the general environment not directly involved in the bullying events.

    • Teachers and other authority figures who intervene in the bullying situation.

  23. Speech—language pathologists (SLPs) can help children with communication disorders who are being bullied by…

    • Telling them to ignore it.

    • Helping to insulate them from the problem and educating the environment about communication disorders and bullying.

    • Telling the teacher about the problem.

    • Calling the parents of the bully.

    • Working to ensure that the child exhibits no signs of the communication disorder.

  24. “Desensitization” refers to…

    • Getting children to not have communication disorders any more.

    • Helping children less concerned about their speech/language difficulty so it will not have as great an effect on their lives.

    • Helping children not care about how they talk or how they sound.

    • Helping children in the environment not care about whether other people are bullied.

    • Helping teachers learn to ignore the signs of bullying.

  25. Which one of the following statements about treating bullying in children with communication disorders is true?

    • There is much that SLPs can do to help children with communication disorders minimize the effects of bullying.

    • SLPs can completely minimize all bullying in the school.

    • Children with communication disorders need to face bullying on their own.

    • There are few resources available to help children who are being bullied.

    • Talking about communication disorders and about bullying will only make things worse.

    Article Six (pp. 356–370)

  26. It is important to address anticipation during assessment with young people who stutter because it:

    • Causes stuttering.

    • Reduces the frequency of stuttering.

    • Always leads to reduced tension.

    • Allows a speaker to alter the speech production process in ways that could be maladaptive or adaptive.

    • Allows a listener to judge the speaker less harshly.

  27. What is the relationship between anticipation and anxiety?

    • They are the same thing.

    • Anticipation may lead to anxiety.

    • Anxiety typically leads to anticipation.

    • Anxiety always precedes anticipation.

    • They are separate, unrelated constructs.

  28. Based on the data presented in this article, the overwhelming majority of CWS and TWS anticipate stuttering:

    • Rarely.

    • Always.

    • At least sometimes.

    • Often.

    • Never.

  29. The Stuttering Anticipation Scale (SAS) is an informal tool that measures the:

    • Extent to which speakers exhibit 25 of the most common responses to anticipation.

    • Frequency of stuttering.

    • Cognitive and affective aspects of stuttering.

    • The way a speaker hopes to respond to anticipation.

    • Duration of stuttering events.

  30. Which statement most accurately reflects the relationship between anticipation in CWS and AWS?

    • CWS anticipates always, whereas AWS anticipates rarely.

    • CWS rarely anticipates, whereas AWS anticipates always.

    • CWS and AWS anticipate to the same degree.

    • CWS does not anticipate, whereas AWS anticipates sometimes.

    • Both CWS and AWS anticipate stuttering; AWS may be more aware of it than CWS.

    Article Seven (pp. 371–381)

  31. All of the following are examples of “integration challenges” except:

    • Scheduling.

    • Caseload changes.

    • Physical space.

    • Choosing appropriate assessments for fluency.

    • Including parents in therapy.

  32. Which of the following is NOT a solution included in this article to the challenge of helping SLPs in a school setting to become more confident treating fluency disorders?

    • Conducting a needs survey about fluency in a district.

    • Creating good working relationships with administrators.

    • Seeking resources and further education in fluency disorders.

    • Setting up a summer camp for children who stutter in your district.

    • Enlisting the support of colleagues.

  33. Developing and implementing measures to assess progress is an example of which challenge(s)?

    • Content.

    • Process.

    • Integration.

    • Content and process.

    • Process and integration.

  34. Related to the three challenges discussed in this article, the authors assert:

    • Content challenges are the most important.

    • The three challenges intertwine.

    • Integration challenges are the most difficult to overcome.

    • Process challenges are the most difficult.

    • Fluency disorders are the most complex disorder facing therapists in the schools today.

  35. The authors advocate for the following to improve services for children with fluency disorders in the schools:

    • A class completely dedicated to fluency disorders at both the undergraduate and graduate level.

    • One-day regional workshops on various topics of fluency disorders.

    • Ongoing training, support, and consultation to school-based therapists.

    • “Response to intervention” (RtI) in order to quickly deliver services to children who stutter.

    • Increasing web-based trainings for fluency disorders.

    Article Eight (pp. 382–396)

  36. A model that situates disability as a pathology within the individual is:

    • The social model.

    • The relational model.

    • The minority model.

    • The medical model.

    • The radical model.

  37. The neurodiversity movement argues that autism:

    • Is a disease that must be cured.

    • Is an impairment that must be treated.

    • Is a natural variation with both positive traits and vulnerabilities.

    • Does not exist.

    • Is caused by environmental factors.

  38. Which of the following is a criticism of the medical model?

    • Pathologization leads to publicand self-stigma.

    • It cannot determine the genetic etiology of traits.

    • It leads to people embracing their differences.

    • It exacerbates symptoms.

    • It helps people conceive of their problems in terms of discrimination and rights.

  39. Which of the following is a criticism of the social model?

    • It distinguishes between impairment and disability.

    • It helps people conceive of their problems in terms of discrimination and rights.

    • It leads to people embracing their differences.

    • It locates disability within the individual.

    • Not all disability-related difficulties are the result of discrimination.

  40. Neurodiversity believes interventions should focus on:

    • Improving fluency.

    • Improving subjective well-being.

    • Appearing more neurotypical.

    • Completely ameliorating the disorder.

    • Increasing the symptoms of the disorder.