J Knee Surg 2018; 31(01): 022-026
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1608844
Special Focus Section
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Bone Marrow Cellular Therapies: Novel Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis

Nicolas S. Piuzzi1, Anton Khlopas1, Jared M. Newman1, Mitchell Ng1, Martin Roche2, M. Elaine Husni3, Kurt P. Spindler1, Michael A. Mont1, George Muschler1
  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
  • 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Holy Cross Orthopedic Institute, Fort Lauderdale, Florida
  • 3Department of Rheumatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
Further Information

Publication History

21 September 2017

27 October 2017

Publication Date:
22 November 2017 (eFirst)


Cellular therapies are emerging as potentially promising treatments for numerous musculoskeletal conditions, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA). As orthopaedic surgeons represent a sizable portion of the providers who deliver these therapies, it is particularly essential for them to understand their fundamental principles. One major principle is to identify the appropriate sources for obtaining these cells, with bone marrow being most common. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to provide an overview of cell-based therapies available for the treatment of knee OA with a focus on bone marrow-derived cellular therapies. Specifically, we discuss (1) bone marrow aspiration technique, (2) processing to bone marrow aspirate concentrate, and (3) the rational and clinical evidence for the use of bone marrow cellular therapies for the treatment of knee OA.