J Pediatr Intensive Care 2018; 07(01): 014-026
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1601424
Original Article
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Practice Recommendations for Early Mobilization in Critically Ill Children

Karen Choong
Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Filomena Canci
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Heather Clark
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Ramona O. Hopkins
Psychology Department and Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, United States
Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Intermountain Medical Center, Murray, Utah, United States
Center for Humanizing Critical Care, Intermountain Healthcare, Murray, Utah, United States
,
Sapna R. Kudchadkar
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
,
Jamil Lati
Division of Rehabilitation, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada
,
Brenda Morrow
Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
,
Charmaine Neu
Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
,
Beth Wieczorek
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine and Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
,
Carleen Zebuhr
Section of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

08 January 2017

23 February 2017

Publication Date:
10 April 2017 (eFirst)

Abstract

Prolonged immobility is associated with significant short- and long-term morbidities in critically ill adults and children. The majority of critically ill children remain immobilized while in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) due to limited awareness of associated morbidities, lack of comfort and knowledge on how to mobilize critically ill children, and the lack of pediatric-specific practice guidelines. The objective of this article was to develop consensus practice recommendations for safe, early mobilization (EM) in critically ill children. A group of 10 multidisciplinary experts with clinical and methodological expertise in physical rehabilitation, EM, and pediatric critical care collaborated to develop these recommendations. First, a systematic review was conducted to evaluate existing evidence on EM in children. Using an iterative process, the working document was circulated electronically to panel members until the group reached consensus. The group agreed that the overall goals of mobilization are to reduce PICU morbidities and optimize recovery. EM should therefore not be instituted in isolation but as part of a rehabilitation care bundle. Mobilization should not be delayed, but its appropriateness and safety should be assessed early. Increasing levels of physical activity should be individualized for each patient with the goal of achieving the highest level of functional mobility that is developmentally appropriate, for increasing durations, daily. We developed a system-based set of clinical safety criteria and a checklist to ensure the safety of mobilization in critically ill children. Although there is a paucity of pediatric evidence on the efficacy of EM, there is ample evidence that prolonged bed rest is harmful and should be avoided. These EM practice recommendations were developed to educate clinicians, encourage safe practices, reduce PICU-acquired morbidities, until future pediatric research provides evidence on effective rehabilitation interventions and how best to implement these in critically ill children.

Authors' Contributions

K.C. conceived of the study and drafted and revised the article. K.C., R.S., and S.A. performed the systematic review. K.C., F.C., H.C., and C.N. drafted the tables and figures. All authors participated in the development of each of the practice recommendations. All authors contributed to the interpretation of results and reviewed and edited the article. All authors approved the final submitted version for publication.