Protective impact of extract from Aronia melanocarpa berries against low-level exposure to cadmium-induced liver damage: a study in a rat model
14 December 2016 (online)
Recently, we have revealed in a rat model of low lifetime human exposure to cadmium (Cd) that consumption of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aronia melanocarpa berries decreased this toxic metal body burden, including its accumulation in the liver , improved the oxidative/antioxidative status of the serum and bone tissue , and prevented from cadmium-induced disorders in bone metabolism . The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this extract may prevent cadmium-induced liver damage. For this purpose, total antioxidative and oxidative status of the liver, histological structure of this organ as well as distribution of living and necrotic cells in the liver tissue were estimated in female Wistar rats administered a 0.1% aqueous extract from Aronia melanocarpa berries (containing 61.24 ± 0.01% of polyphenols) or/and 1 mg Cd/kg diet for up to 24 months. The exposure to cadmium resulted in the development of oxidative stress in the liver and changes in this organ morphology (blurred trabecular structure of the lobes, microvesicular steatosis, liquative necrosis, vacuolization, enlarged dimensions of cells, mononuclear cell infiltrations) as well as decreased the percentage of living liver cells and increased the percentage of necrotic cells. The administration of the extract from Aronia melanocarpa berries under the exposure to cadmium completely prevented this heavy metal-induced oxidative stress in the liver and offered significant protection against cadmium-induced changes in this organ morphology and living and necrotic cells distribution. The results allow the conclusion that consumption of Aronia melanocarpa berries extract may protect from liver damage due to low chronic exposure to cadmium. The findings provide confirmation of our hypothesis that Aronia melanocarpa berries and their products may be good candidates for investigation of their possible prophylactic use in humans exposed to this heavy metal.
Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported in part by the Grant (No. N N405 051140) from the National Science Centre (Poland). The study was conducted with the use of equipment purchased by Medical University of Bialystok as part of the OP DEP 2007 – 2013, Priority Axis I.3, contract No. POPW.01.03.00 – 20 – 001/12.
Keywords: Aronia melanorarpa, cadmium, liver, morphology, oxidative stress, protection.
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