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Determination of the antimicrobial and antitussive activities of the leaves of Solanum torvum
14 December 2016 (online)
Cough is a protective reflex which prevents the entry of foreign materials into the respiratory tract and also aids the expulsion of mucus. The nature of coughing may depict the presence of a disease. Cough may be caused by an infection of the respiratory tract by viruses and bacteria . Solanum torvum (Swartz) is a valuable medicinal plant of the Solanaceae family. Various parts of this plant are used in the treatment of different diseases such as cough, asthma, diabetes, microbial infections and liver diseases just to mention a few . This study screen for phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antitussive effects on the methanol extract of the leaves of S. torvum. Extraction of the leaves was done by cold macerating with methanol, phytochemical screening was done using methods described by Ayensu & Quartey , Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the leave extract was obtained using agar well diffusion method at concentrations 5.0 – 0.625 mg/mL screened against selected micro-organisms implicated in cough (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli). Antitussive activity was accessed using citric acid method. Phytochemical screening on the leaves extract showed the presence of, tannins, flavonoids, reducing sugars, saponin glycosides, alkaloids, phytosteroids and terpenoids. MIC obtained for the antimicrobial assay were 2.5 mg/ml, 3.16 mg/ml, 5.0 mg/ml and 5.0 mg/ml for S. aureus, S. pyogenens, K. pneumonia and E. coli respectively. The antitussive activity of the extract showed a dose dependent activity giving percentage cough inhibition of 53.4%, 64.3% and 73.6% for doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively with 76.2% for the positive control dihydrocodeine and 17.4% for the negative control normal saline. The methanol extract of the leaves of S. torvum have important phytochemical constituents, some antimicrobial activity and a dose dependent antitussive activity.
Acknowledgements: Gabriel Dapaah is acknowledged for technical assistance.
Keywords: Solanum torvum, antitussive activity, antimicrobial activity, dihydrocodeine, citric acid.
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