Am J Perinatol 2016; 33(14): 1426-1432
DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1586510
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Measures of Self-reported Psychosocial States and Traits during Pregnancy

William A. Grobman
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
,
Corette Parker
2   Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
,
Pathik D. Wadhwa
3   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California
,
Marian Willinger
4   Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland
,
Hyagriv Simhan
5   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
,
Bob Silver
6   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah
,
Ron J. Wapner
7   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University, New York, New York
,
Samuel Parry
8   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
,
Brian Mercer
9   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio
,
David Haas
10   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana
,
Alan M. Peaceman
1   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois
,
Shannon Hunter
2   Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina
,
Deborah Wing
3   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California
,
Steve Caritis
5   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
,
Sean Esplin
6   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah
,
Matt Hoffman
11   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware
,
Jack Ludmir
8   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
,
Jay Iams
12   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio
,
Emily Long
10   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana
,
George Saade
13   Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas
,
Uma M. Reddy
4   Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland
,
for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health Human Development nuMoM2b Network, Bethesda, MD › Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

16 May 2016

24 June 2016

Publication Date:
08 August 2016 (online)

Abstract

Background The aim of this study was to determine whether racial/ethnic differences in psychosocial measures, independent of economic status, exist among a large population of pregnant nulliparas.

Methods Between October 2010 and September 2013, nulliparous women at eight U.S. medical centers were followed longitudinally during pregnancy and completed validated instruments to quantify several psychosocial domains: Cohen Perceived Stress Scale, trait subscale of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Krieger Racism Scale, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the Pregnancy Experience Scale. Scores were stratified and compared by self-reported race, ethnicity, and income.

Results Complete data were available for 8,128 of the 10,038 women enrolled in the study. For all measures, race and ethnicity were significantly associated (p < 0.001) with survey scores. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) women were most likely to score in the most unfavorable category for all measures, with the exception of the Pregnancy Experience Scale. The magnitude of these differences did not differ by income status (interaction, p > 0.05) except on the Krieger racism survey and the Edinburgh depression survey, which were exacerbated among NHB women with higher income (interaction, p < 0.001).

Conclusion Significant racial/ethnic disparities, independent of income status, exist in psychosocial measures during pregnancy.