Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2015; 36(05): 746-755
DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1562900
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Coccidioidomycosis: Recent Updates

Meryl Twarog
1  Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, Davis, California
,
George R. Thompson III
1  Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, Davis, California
2  Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, California
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
23 September 2015 (online)

Abstract

Coccidioidomycosis manifests as a variety of clinical manifestations and ranges in severity from asymptomatic exposure with resultant immunity to reinfection, to fulminant, and life-threatening disseminated disease. Primary coccidioidal pneumonia represents the most common clinical form of infection, and the incidence continues to increase. Within the endemic region, primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis represents up to 29% of all community-acquired pneumonia emphasizing the frequency with which clinicians encounter this endemic mycosis. Chronic infection develops in 3 to 5% of patients, and almost all morbidity and mortality observed in coccidioidomycosis occur in these forms (e.g., chronic pulmonary disease, extrapulmonary manifestations). This review summarizes the ecology, epidemiology, manifestations of disease, and treatment options currently available for coccidioidomycosis.