Am J Perinatol 2014; 31(11): 987-992
DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1371359
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

A Neonatal Nurse Training Program in Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) Decreases Barriers to KMC Utilization in the NICU

Karen D. Hendricks-Munoz
1  Division of Neonatal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Richmond at VCU, Richmond, Virginia
Roslyn M. Mayers
2  Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Bellevue Hospital Center, New York, New York
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

10 October 2013

26 December 2013

Publication Date:
28 March 2014 (eFirst)


Objective This study assessed the impact of a nurse simulation training program on perception of kangaroo mother care (KMC) value and transfer skill competency.

Study Design An 8-item Likert scale skill survey tool and a 24-item Likert developmental care survey tool were used in a prospective cohort study to analyze perceptions of 30 neonatal nurses who underwent a comprehensive KMC simulation-based training program. Competency skills were evaluated pretraining and tracked by direct observation for 6 months posttraining. Pre- and postsurvey data were analyzed and KMC utilization for preterm infants born at ≤ 34 weeks' gestation was determined.

Results Nurses' competency in infant transfer improved, especially in infants receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure or ventilator support, from 30 to 93% or 10 to 50%, respectively, p < 0.0001. Neonatal nurses' perceived KMC value increased from 50 to 100%, p < 0.001, and parent KMC utilization increased from 26.5 to 85.9%, p < 0.0001. Nurses' support for parental visitation improved from 38 to 73%, p < 0.001; discussion of KMC with parents on the 1st day increased from 5 to 45%, p < 0.001; and initial day of KMC provision improved from 18.0 ± 2.7 to 5.6 ± 1.2 days, p < 0.001.

Conclusions A comprehensive simulation-based KMC education program improved nurses' perception of KMC value, their competency and comfort in infant transfer for KMC care, and successfully promoted KMC parent utilization for the preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit.