Amer J Perinatol 2014; 31(09): 811-822
DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1361933
Original Article
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

Medication Use in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Emily M. Hsieh
1  Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore
2  Duke University Medical Center, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina
,
Christoph P. Hornik
2  Duke University Medical Center, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina
3  Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
,
Reese H. Clark
4  Pediatrix-Obstetrix Center for Research and Education, Sunrise, Florida
,
Matthew M. Laughon
5  Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
,
Daniel K. Benjamin Jr.
2  Duke University Medical Center, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina
3  Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
,
P. Brian Smith
2  Duke University Medical Center, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina
3  Department of Pediatrics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina
,
on Behalf of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

12 July 2013

14 October 2013

Publication Date:
17 December 2013 (eFirst)

Abstract

Objective The aim of the article is to provide an update on medication use in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the United States and examine how use has changed over time.

Study Design We performed a retrospective review (2005–2010) of a large prospectively collected administrative database.

Result Medications most commonly administered during the study period were ampicillin, gentamicin, caffeine citrate, vancomycin, beractant, furosemide, fentanyl, dopamine, midazolam, and calfactant (56–681 exposures per 1,000 infants). Those with the greatest relative increase in use included azithromycin, sildenafil, and milrinone. Medications with the greatest relative decrease in use included theophylline, metoclopramide, and doxapram.

Conclusion Medication use in the NICU has changed substantially over time, and only 35% of the most commonly prescribed medications are Food and Drug Administration –approved in infants.