Ultraschall Med 2013; 34(1): 11-29
DOI: 10.1055/s-0032-1325499
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Guidelines and Good Clinical Practice Recommendations for Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in the Liver – Update 2012

A WFUMB-EFSUMB Initiative in Cooperation With Representatives of AFSUMB, AIUM, ASUM, FLAUS and ICUS
M. Claudon
1  Department of Pediatric Radiology, INSERM U947, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy and Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre, France
C. F. Dietrich
2  Medizinische Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim, Germany
B. I. Choi
3  Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea
D. O. Cosgrove
4  Imaging Sciences Department, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom
M. Kudo
5  Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
C. P. Nolsøe
6  Ultrasound Section, Division of Surgery, Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
F. Piscaglia
7  Division of Internal Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
S. R. Wilson
8  Division of Gastroenterology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada
R. G. Barr
9  Northeastern Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, Ohio, United States of America
M. C. Chammas
10  Institute of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
N. G. Chaubal
11  Thane Ultrasound Centre, Jaslok Hospital, Mumbai, India
M.-H. Chen
12  Peking University Cancer Hospital, Peking, China
D. A. Clevert
13  Interdisciplinary Ultrasound Center, Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich-Grosshadern Campus, Munich, Germany
J. M. Correas
14  Service de Radiologie Adultes, Hôpital Necker, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France
H. Ding
15  Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
F. Forsberg
16  Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Philadelphia, United States of America
J. B. Fowlkes
17  Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
R. N. Gibson
18  Department of Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
B. B. Goldberg
19  Division of Diagnostic Ultrasound, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
N. Lassau
20  Integrated Research Cancer Institute in Villejuif, Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France
E. L. S. Leen
21  Imaging Department, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
R. F. Mattrey
22  MRI Institute, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of America
F. Moriyasu
23  Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
L. Solbiati
24  Department of Interventional Oncologic Radiology, General Hospital of Busto Arsizio, Busto Arsizio, Italy
H.-P. Weskott
25  Central Ultrasound Department, Klinikum Siloah, Klinikum Region Hannover, Hannover, Germany
H.-X. Xu
26  Department of Medical Ultrasound, Tenth People’s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai, China
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
05 November 2012 (online)


Initially, a set of guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents was published in 2004 dealing only with liver applications. A second edition of the guidelines in 2008 reflected changes in the available contrast agents and updated the guidelines for the liver, as well as implementing some non-liver applications. Time has moved on, and the need for international guidelines on the use of CEUS in the liver has become apparent. The present document describes the third iteration of recommendations for the hepatic use of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using contrast specific imaging techniques. This joint WFUMB-EFSUMB initiative has implicated experts from major leading ultrasound societies worldwide. These liver CEUS guidelines are simultaneously published in the official journals of both organizing federations (i.e., Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology for WFUMB and Ultraschall in der Medizin/European Journal of Ultrasound for EFSUMB). These guidelines and recommendations provide general advice on the use of all currently clinically available ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). They are intended to create standard protocols for the use and administration of UCA in liver applications on an international basis and improve the management of patients worldwide.