The pericarp of Pisum sativum L.(Fabaceae) as a biologically active waste product
Food industries generate large amounts of wastes and byproducts which contain biologically active compounds. The recycling of these wastes could be of economic benefits. Pericarp of Pisum sativum L. pods is separated from the seeds which are processed as frozen foods. Most of the phytochemical studies on Pisum sativum dealt mainly with the seeds.
With the aim of utilization of waste products as biologically active natural sources, the pericarp of Pisum sativum (Pea), cultivated in Egypt was phytochemically and biologically studied. The phenolic content amounted to 27.5mg/g. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of eight phenolic acids (cinnamic, chlorogenic, vanillic, coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, gallic and syringic acids) and three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein and formononetin). GC/MS analysis of the unsaponifiable and saponifiable fractions of the lipoidal matter revealed the presence of two major sterols: stigmasterol and β-sitosterol and twelve fatty acids, palmitic acid being the major component (30%). Soluble carbohydrate content determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method amounted to 0.6g/g of aqueous extract, the identified sugars being glucose, fructose, sucrose and rhamnose. Acute toxicity of the chloroform and 80% aqueous – acetone extracts, antimicrobial screening of the saponifiable fraction and the anti-inflammatory activity of the unsaponifiable matter were studied, together with the antidiabetic activity of the 80% aqueous – acetone extract. Results showed that the two extracts were relatively safe. The saponifiable fraction showed significant antibacterial activity, but no effects against fungi or yeast. The unsaponifiable matter displayed significant anti-inflammatory activity. The 80% aqueous – acetone extract showed potential antihyperglycaemic activity.