Ultraschall Med 2023; 44(01): e1-e24
DOI: 10.1055/a-1882-5615
Guidelines & Recommendations

EFSUMB Clinical Practice Guidelines for Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Part One (Common Heart and Pulmonary Applications) LONG VERSION

EFSUMB-Leitlinien für die klinische Praxis des Point-of-Care-Ultraschalls: Teil 1 (Allgemeine Herz- und Lungenanwendungen) LANGFASSUNG
1   Emergency Department, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
2   School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
3   Emergency Medicine, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
4   Emergency Medicine, University Hospital Lewisham, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Morten Bøtker
5   Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
6   Prehospital Emergency Medical Services, Central Denmark Region, Viborg, Denmark
Lars Knudsen
7   Department of Anaesthesia, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Tim Harris
8   Emergency Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
9   Emergency Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Bilal Albaroudi
9   Emergency Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Omar Albaroudi
9   Emergency Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
9   Emergency Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Robert Darke
10   Emergency Medicine and Intensive Care Medicine, Health Education England North East, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Edward Berry
11   Emergency Medicine, Torbay Hospital, Torquay, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Tomas Breslin
3   Emergency Medicine, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
12   School of Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland
Gareth Fitzpatrick
13   Emergency Medicine, St Vincent’s University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Leah Flanagan
3   Emergency Medicine, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
Olusegun Olusanya
14   Intensive Care Medicine, University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Dominic Craver
15   Emergency Medicine, The Royal London Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Adhnan Omar
16   Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Lewisham, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Thomas Simpson
17   Respiratory Medicine, Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Nishant Cherian
18   Emergency Medicine, The Alfred Emergency & Trauma Centre, Melbourne, Australia
2   School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Martin Dore
19   Emergency Medicine, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Gregor Prosen
20   Center for Emergency Medicine, University Medical Centre Maribor, Slovenia
Sharon Kay
21   Cardiac Physiology and Echocardiography, The University of Sydney, Australia
Tomás Villén-Villegas
22   Department of Medicine, Francisco de Vitoria University, Pozuelo de Alarcon, Spain
Luna Gargani
23   Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Physiology National Research Council, Pisa, Italy
Simon Carley
24   Emergency Medicine, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
25   Emergency Medicine, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Michael Woo
26   Emergency Medicine, University of Ottawa, Canada
27   Emergency Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
Florence Dupriez
28   Emergency Medicine, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, Bruxelles, Belgium
Arif Hussain
29   Cardiac Critical Care, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Gabriele Via
30   Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Istituto Cardiocentro Ticino Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Lugano, Switzerland, Pavia, Italy
James Anthony Connolly
31   Emergency Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Marcus Peck
32   Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Frimley Park Hospital NHS Trust, Frimley, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Larry Melniker
33   Emergency Medicine, New York-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, United States
Andrew Walden
34   Acute and Intensive Care Medicine, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
35   Acute Medicine and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Oxford, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Mark Anthony Attard Biancardi
36   Emergency Medicine, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta
Olga Żmijewska-Kaczor
37   Emergency Medicine, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Elizabeth Lalande
38   Emergency Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de lʼUniversité Laval, Sainte-Foy, Canada
Paul Geukens
39   Intensive Care Medicine, Hopital de Jolimont, Haine-Saint-Paul, Belgium
Russell McLaughlin
40   Emergency Medicine, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
41   Medical Director, Northern Ireland Ambulance Service, Belfast, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Paul Olszynski
42   Emergency Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada
Beatrice Hoffmann
43   Emergency Department, Harvard Medical School Department of Emergency Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, United States
Eric Chin
44   Emergency Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, United States
Christopher Muhr
45   Emergency Medicine and Internal Medicine, Capio Sankt Gorans Sjukhus, Stockholm, Sweden
46   Emergency Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
47   Emergency Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, Canada
Andre Mercieca
36   Emergency Medicine, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta
Dharmesh Shukla
9   Emergency Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar
Simon Hayward
48   Physiotherapy, Blackpool Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Blackpool, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Michael Smith
49   School of Healthcare Sciences, Cardiff University College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Romolo Gaspari
50   Emergency Medicine, UMass Memorial Medical Center, Worcester, United States
51   Emergency Medicine, UMass Medical School, Worcester, United States
Nick Smallwood
52   Acute Medicine, East Surrey Hospital, Redhill, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Philippe Pes
53   Emergency Medicine, University Hospital Centre Nantes, France
Guido Tavazzi
54   Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
55   Dipartimento di Scienze Clinico-Chirurgiche, Diagnostiche e Pediatriche, Università degli Studi di Pavia Facoltà di Medicina e Chirurgia, Pavia, Italy
Francesco Corradi
56   Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy
Michael Lambert
57   Emergency Medicine, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, United States
Craig Morris
58   Intensive Care, Royal Derby Hospital, Derby, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Michael Trauer
59   Emergency Medicine, St Thomas’ Hospital, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Kylie Baker
60   Emergency Medicine, Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, Australia
61   Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Saint Lucia, Australia
Adam Bystrzycki
18   Emergency Medicine, The Alfred Emergency & Trauma Centre, Melbourne, Australia
62   Department of Epidemiology & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
Adrian Goudie
63   Emergency Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch, Australia
Rachel Liu
64   Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, United States
Lynne Rudd
65   General Secretary, European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB), London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
66   Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin, Kliniken Hirslanden Beau Site, Salem und Permanence, Bern, Switzerland
Christian Jenssen
67   Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland Strausberg/ Wriezen, Germany
68   Radiology, King’s College London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
› Author Affiliations


Aims To evaluate the evidence and produce a summary and recommendations for the most common heart and lung applications of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS).

Methods We reviewed 10 clinical domains/questions related to common heart and lung applications of PoCUS. Following review of the evidence, a summary and recommendation were produced, including assignment of levels of evidence (LoE) and grading of the recommendation, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE). 38 international experts, the expert review group (ERG), were invited to review the evidence presented for each question. A level of agreement of over 75 % was required to progress to the next section. The ERG then reviewed and indicated their level of agreement regarding the summary and recommendation for each question (using a 5-point Likert scale), which was approved if a level of agreement of greater than 75 % was reached. A level of agreement was defined as a summary of “strongly agree” and “agree” on the Likert scale responses.

Findings and Recommendations One question achieved a strong consensus for an assigned LoE of 3 and a weak GRADE recommendation (question 1). The remaining 9 questions achieved broad agreement with one assigned an LoE of 4 and weak GRADE recommendation (question 2), three achieving an LoE of 3 with a weak GRADE recommendation (questions 3–5), three achieved an LoE of 3 with a strong GRADE recommendation (questions 6–8), and the remaining two were assigned an LoE of 2 with a strong GRADE recommendation (questions 9 and 10).

Conclusion These consensus-derived recommendations should aid clinical practice and highlight areas of further research for PoCUS in acute settings.


Ziel Bewertung der Evidenz und Erstellung einer Zusammenfassung sowie von Empfehlungen für die häufigsten Herz- und Lungenanwendungen des Point-of-Care-Ultraschalls (PoCUS).

Methoden Wir überprüften 10 klinische Bereiche bzw. Fragen im Zusammenhang mit den häufigsten Herz- und Lungenanwendungen des PoCUS. Nach der Überprüfung der Evidenz wurden eine Zusammenfassung und eine Empfehlung erstellt, einschließlich der Zuordnung von Evidenzgraden („Level of Evidence“ LoE) und der Einstufung der Empfehlung, Bewertung, Entwicklung und Evaluierung (GRADE). Die Expert Review Group (ERG), bestehend aus 38 internationalen Experten, wurde aufgefordert, die für jede Fragestellung vorgelegte Evidenz zu überprüfen. Eine Zustimmung von über 75 % war erforderlich, um zum nächsten Teilbereich überzugehen. Anschließend überprüfte die ERG die Ergebnisse und gab den Grad der Zustimmung (mittels 5-stufiger Likert-Skala) bezüglich der Zusammenfassung und Empfehlung für jede Fragestellung an. Diese wurde anerkannt, wenn der Grad der Zustimmung – definiert als Summe der Antworten „stimme voll zu“ und „stimme zu“ auf der Likert-Skala – mehr als 75 % betrug.

Ergebnisse und Empfehlungen Bei einer Frage wurde ein starker Konsens bei einem zugeordneten LoE von 3 und einer schwachen GRADE-Empfehlung erzielt (Frage 1). Die übrigen 9 Fragen erzielten eine breite Zustimmung, wobei eine Frage einen LoE von 4 und eine schwache GRADE-Empfehlung erhielt (Frage 2), 3 Fragen erreichten einen LoE von 3 mit schwacher GRADE-Empfehlung (Fragen 3–5), 3 Fragen erreichten einen LoE von 3 mit starker GRADE-Empfehlung (Fragen 6–8) und die verbleibenden 2 Fragen erhielten einen LoE von 2 mit einer starken GRADE-Empfehlung (Fragen 9 und 10).

Schlussfolgerung Diese konsensbasierten Empfehlungen sollen die klinische Praxis unterstützen und Bereiche für weitere Forschung im Bereich des PoCUS in der Akutversorgung aufzeigen.

Publication History

Received: 23 December 2021

Accepted: 07 June 2022

Article published online:
13 October 2022

© 2022. Thieme. All rights reserved.

Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Rüdigerstraße 14, 70469 Stuttgart, Germany

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