Influence of Sprint Duration during Minimal Volume Exercise on Aerobic Capacity and AffectFunding: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of reduced-exertion, high-intensity interval training (REHIT), comparing a novel shortened-sprint protocol (SSREHIT) against a traditional protocol (TREHIT), on perceptual responses and to determine if changes in peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) are attenuated with shorter sprints. Twenty-four healthy men undertook 15 sessions of SSREHIT or TREHIT. V˙O2peak was determined at baseline and after completion of each exercise condition. Affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses and perceived exertion were assessed during exercise to capture peak responses. Enjoyment was recorded 5-min after cessation of exercise. Compared to baseline, V˙O2peak increased in both groups (6% for SSREHIT [d=− 0.36] and 9% for TREHIT [d=− 0.53], p=0.01). Affective responses were more favourable for SSREHIT (p=0.001, d=1.62), but both protocols avoided large negative peaks of displeasure. Peak ratings of perceived exertion were lower for SSREHIT (p=0.001, d=− 1.71), although there were no differences in enjoyment (d=0.25). The results demonstrate both exercise conditions can increase V˙O2peak without overly compromising perceptual responses. Decreased sprint duration might further circumvent negative perceptual responses but might also attenuate physiological adaptations.
Key wordsenjoyment - high intensity - interval training - oxygen uptake - perceived exertion - feeling
Eingereicht: 11. Juni 2020
Angenommen: 11. August 2020
06. Oktober 2020 (online)
© 2020. Thieme. All rights reserved.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG
Stuttgart · New York
- 1 Warburton DER, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of physical activity: A systematic review of current systematic reviews. Curr Opin Cardiol 2017; 32: 541-556
- 2 Reichart FF, Barros AJD, Dominigues MR. et al. The role of perceived personal barriers to engagement in leisure-time physical activity. Am J Public Health 2007; 97: 515-519
- 3 Hallal PC, Anderson LB, Bull FC. et al. Physical activity series working group: Global physical activity levels: Surveillance progress, pitfalls and prospects. Lancet 2012; 380: 247-257
- 4 Haskell W, Lee I, Pate R. et al. Physical activity and public health: Updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39: 1423-1434
- 5 Department of Health and Social Care, UK Physical activity guidelines: UK Chief Medical Officers’ report. 2019. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/physical-activity-guidelines-uk-chief-medical-officers-report. Accessed 09 Jul 2020
- 6 Gaeser AG, Angadi S. High-intensity interval training for health and fitness: Can less be more?. J App Physiol (1985) 2011; 111: 1540-1541
- 7 Gillen JB, Gibala MJ. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2014; 39: 409-412
- 8 Batacan RB, Duncan MJ, Dalbo VJ. et al. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. Br J Sports Med 2017; 51: 494-503
- 9 Hardcastle SJ, Ray H, Beale L. et al. Why sprint interval training is inappropriate for a largely sedentary population. Front Psychol 2014; 5: 1505. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01505.
- 10 Vollard NBJ, Metcalfe RS. Research into the health benefits of sprint interval training should focus on protocols with fewer and shorter sprints. Sports Med 2017; 47: 2443-2451 doi:10.1007/s40279-017-0727-x
- 11 Metcalfe R, Babraj J, Fawkner S. et al. Towards the minimal amount of exercise for improving metabolic health: Beneficial effects of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011; 112: 2767-2775
- 12 Metcalfe RS, Tardif N, Thompson D. et al. Changes in aerobic capacity and glycaemic control in response to reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) are not different between sedentary men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016; 41: 1117-1123
- 13 Matsuo T, Saotome K, Seino S. et al. Effects of a low-volume aerobic-type interval exercise on VO2max and cardiac mass. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014; 46: 42-50
- 14 Church TS, LaMonte MJ, Barlow CE. et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index as predictors of cardiovascular disease mortality among men with diabetes. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 2114-2120
- 15 Ross R, Blair SN, Arena R. et al. Importance of assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in clinical practice: A case for fitness as a clinical vital sign: A scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2016; 134: e653-e699
- 16 Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. Variation and homogeneity in affective responses to physical activity of varying intensities: An alternative perspective on dose-response based evolutionary considerations. J Sports Sci 2005; 23: 477-500
- 17 Decker ES, Ekkekakis P. More efficient perhaps, but at what price? Pleasure and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval exercise in low-active women with obesity. Psychol Sport Exerc 2017; 28: 1-10
- 18 Ruffino JS, Songsorn P, Haggett M. et al. A comparison of the health benefits of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) and moderate-intensity walking in type 2 diabetes patients. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017; 42: 202-208 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2016-0497.
- 19 Haines M. Assessing the feasibility of a reduced exertion, low-volume, high-intensity interval training (HIT) protocol: A pilot study. J Sports Sci 2015; 33: S25-S31
- 20 Ekkekakis P, Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ. The relationship between exercise intensity and affective responses demystified: To crack the 40-year-old nut, replace the 40-year-old nutcracker!. Ann Behav Med 2008; 35: 136-149
- 21 Songsorn P, Fitzpatrick B, McDermott G. et al. Affective and perceptual responses during reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT). Int J Sport Exerc Psych 2019; DOI: 10.1080/1612197X.2019.1593217.
- 22 Nalçakan GR, Songsorn P, Fitzpatrick BL. et al. Decreasing sprint duration from 20 to 10 s during reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) attenuated the increase in maximal aerobic capacity but has no effect on affective and perceptual responses. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019; 43: 338-344
- 23 Metcalfe RS, Koumanov F, Ruffino JS. et al. Physiological and molecular responses to an acute bout of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT). Eur J Appl Physiol 2015; 115: 2321-2334
- 24 Haines M, Broom D, Gillibrand W. et al. Effects of three low-volume, high-intensity exercise conditions on affective valence. J Sports Sci 2020; 38: 121-129 DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1684779.
- 25 Cohen J. Statistical Power for Behavioural Sciences. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988
- 26 Harriss DJ, Macsween A, Atkinson G. Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research: 2020 update. Int J Sports Med 2019; 40: 813-817
- 27 Hardy CJ, Rejeski WJ. Not what, but how one feels: The measurement of affect during exercise. J Sports Exerc Psychol 1989; 11: 304-317
- 28 Borg G. Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med 1970; 2: 92-98
- 29 Stanley DM. Cumming. Are we having fun yet? Testing the effects of imagery use on the affective and enjoyment responses to acute moderate exercise. Psychol Sport Exerc 2009; 11: 582-590
- 30 Milanović Z, Sporiš G, Weston M. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous endurance training for VO2max improvements: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports Med 2015; 45: 1469-1481
- 31 Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V. et al. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 793-801
- 32 Gurd BJ, Giles MD, Bonafiglia JT. et al. Incidence of non-response and individual patterns of response following sprint interval training. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2016; 41: 229-234 DOI: 10.1139/apnm-2015-0449.
- 33 Bouchard C, An P, Rice T. et al. Familial aggregation of VO2max response to exercise training: Results from the HERITAGE Family Study. J App Physiol (1985) 1999; 87: 1003-1008
- 34 Timmons JA, Knudsen S, Rankinen T. et al. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans. J App Physiol (1985) 2010; 108: 1487-1496
- 35 Bonafiglia JT, Rotundo MP, Whittall JP. et al. Inter-individual variability in the adaptive responses to endurance and sprint interval training: A randomized crossover study. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0167790. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167790.
- 36 Jung ME, Bourne JE, Little JP. Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous-vigorous intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum. PLoS One 2014; 9 e114541
- 37 Wankel LM. The importance of enjoyment to adherence and psychological benefits from physical activity. Int J Sports Psychol 1993; 24: 151-169
- 38 Bartlett J, Close G, MacLaren D. et al. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: Implications for exercise adherence. J Sports Sci 2011; 29: 547-553
- 39 Martinez N, Kilpatrick MW, Salomon K. et al. Affective and enjoyment responses to high-intensity interval training in overweight-to-obese and insufficiently active adults. J Sports Exerc Psychol 2014; 37: 138-149
- 40 Thomas G, Songsorn P, Gorman A. et al. Reducing training frequency from 3 or 4 sessions/week to 2 sessions/week does not attenuate improvements in maximal aerobic capacity with reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT). Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020; 54: 683-685