Int J Sports Med 2020; 41(01): 59-64
DOI: 10.1055/a-1019-7742
Orthopedics & Biomechanics
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Glenohumeral and Hip Range of Motion in Youth Softball Athletes

Kenzie Friesen
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
Jessica Downs
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
Kyle Wasserberger
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
David Shannon
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
Gretchen D. Oliver
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
21 November 2019 (online)


The purpose of this study was to compare measures of bilateral shoulder and hip range of motion (ROM) between youth softball pitchers and position players. Fifty-two youth softball athletes (12.7±2.1 yrs.; 160.28±10.98 cm; 59.31±15.07 kg) participated. Bilateral hip and shoulder ROM were measured among pitchers (n=29) and position players (n=23). A 2 (pitcher/position player) × 2 (dominant/non-dominant) ANOVA was performed for both internal and external rotation ROM for the shoulder and hip. Paired sample t-tests were also conducted to examine side-to-side differences in total ROM. Data revealed a significant interaction between position and side dominance. Specifically, position players have significantly more non-dominant shoulder external rotation ROM (106.92°± 9.14°) than pitchers (100.12°± 11.21°). There were no significant differences between throwing and non-throwing sides. It is important that coaches and clinicians are aware of these adaptations between overhand and underhand throwing in order to properly develop conditioning and rehabilitation programs to alleviate injury susceptibility and cater to position-specific demands. Additionally, the current data suggest many of the functional adaptations seen within older populations are not fully developed until after youth.

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