Electrocoagulation of biliary papillomatosis during choledochoscopy
18 January 2019 (online)
A 39-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with pain in the right upper quadrant for more than 2 months. Magnetic resource imaging (MRI) showed that the patient had liver calcification, dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct and upper part of the extrahepatic bile duct, and hepatic parenchymal nodules ([Fig. 1]). The patient had undergone cholecystectomy for gallstones a year previously. For further diagnosis and treatment, we decided to perform biliary exploration.
During the procedure, there were no obvious stones seen but many papillary neoplasms with silt-like mucus were seen in the hilar and intrahepatic bile ducts on choledochoscopy ([Fig. 2]), which were thought to be biliary papillomatosis . A biopsy was taken, which confirmed the diagnosis ([Fig. 3]). Biliary papillomatosis is a rare and fatal disease characterized by multiple papillary tumors of variable distribution and extent in the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary tree  . In an effort to destroy the tumors, 6 weeks later, we performed cholangioscopic electrocoagulation through a T-tube tract ([Video 1]). With there being little bleeding during the endoscopic operation, we re-inserted a T-tube into the common bile duct, and the patient returned to the ward safely.
Video 1 Choledochoscopy showing many papillary neoplasms in the hilar and intrahepatic bile ducts. Cholangioscopic electrocoagulation is performed in an effort to destroy the tumors. Follow-up choledochoscopy shows the procedure was a success.
Planned follow-up of the patient by choledochoscopy 3 weeks later showed that the visible bile duct silt-like mucus had disappeared, the hilar and intrahepatic bile ducts were smooth with some scarring visible, but there was no evidence of bile duct papilloma ([Fig. 4]). The patient was discharged from the hospital after a period of time.
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* Joint first authors
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