Homeopathy 2017; 106(04): 203-213
DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2017.09.001
Original Paper
Copyright © The Faculty of Homeopathy 2017

Therapeutic potential of HIV nosode 30c as evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells

Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsha
1   Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India
Jesmin Mondal
1   Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India
Rajesh Shah
2   Life Force, 411 Krushal Commercial Complex, G.M. Road, Chembur, Mumbai 400 089, India
› Author Affiliations

Subject Editor:
Further Information

Publication History

Received21 April 2017
revised11 September 2017

accepted11 September 2017

Publication Date:
02 January 2018 (online)

Objectives: To examine if HIV nosode in 30c dilution (HIV 30c) has therapeutic potential against lung cancer cells (A549) as compared to WRL-68 normal cells and to elucidate its possible molecular mechanism of action on DNA replication and apoptosis.

Methods: Effects of HIV 30c were thoroughly tested for its possible anticancer potential on A549 cells (lung cancer); WRL-68 normal liver cells served as control. Three doses, one at LD50 and two below LD-50, were used. Proliferation, migration and senescence assays were made and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) studied by routine techniques. The ability of HIV 30c to induce apoptosis in A549 cells and its possible signalling pathway were determined using immunoblots of relevant signal proteins and confocal microscopy, including studies on telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and topoisomerase II (Top II) activities, intimately associated with cell division and DNA replication.

Results: HIV 30c prevented cancer cell proliferation and migration, induced pre-mature senescence, enhanced pro-apoptotic signal proteins like p53, bax, cytochrome c, caspase-3 and inhibited anti-apoptotic signal proteins Bcl2, TERT and Top II, changed mitochondrial membrane potential and caused externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Thus, it induced apoptosis as also evidenced from increase in cells with distorted membrane morphology, nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and ROS, typical of apoptosis in progress.

Conclusion: HIV 30c nosode has therapeutic potential for inducing cytotoxic effects on A549 cells as manifested by changes in nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, ROS generation and MMP, and for its inhibitory action on cell proliferation, cell migration, expression of telomerase reverse transcriptase and Top II genes, and increasing expression of pro-apoptotic genes.

Graphical abstract


• HIV nosode in 30th centesimal dilution induces apoptosis in cancer cells.

• It acts by inhibiting cell proliferation and migration in A549 cells.

• It down-regulates expression of TERT and topoisomerase II enzymes.

• It induces conformational changes in DNA with associated senescence.

a Formerly at: Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, 741235, India.