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Prognostic Value of Swirl Sign in Acute Epidural HemorrhageFunding None.
Objective The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the incidence, prognostic value, and impact of swirl sign on the outcome of patients who underwent surgical treatment for epidural hematoma.
Materials and Methods A retrospective analytical study on 307 acute epidural hematoma (AEDH) patients with and without swirl sign was conducted at our hospital between 2015 and 2019. All the patients in this study were treated initially as per the protocols of advanced trauma life support and surgically treated by craniotomy and evacuation of epidural hematoma. Patients with other concomitant intracerebral injuries such as subdural hematoma and contusion and those who were managed conservatively were excluded from the study. Various factors such as age, sex, mechanism of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, time from injury to surgery, preoperative mydriasis, location of bleed, midline shift, location of fracture, volume of hematoma, duration of stay in the hospital, and GCS score at discharge were taken into consideration and compared in between patients with and without swirl sign. Outcomes were assessed at the end of 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale.
Results Of the 307 patients who were operated for epidural hemorrhage, 92 had swirl sign (29.96%) and the rest had no swirl sign. Univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between the presence of swirl sign and age, preoperative mydriasis, and time from injury to surgery. The patients with the swirl sign had an unfavorable outcome at the end of 6 months which was statistically significant.
Conclusion It can be concluded that those patients with swirl sign in AEDH had an unfavorable outcome compared to those without swirl sign. Therefore, aggressive treatment and early surgery play an important role in the outcomes of the patients.
Article published online:
15 November 2022
© 2022. Asian Congress of Neurological Surgeons. This is an open access article published by Thieme under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonDerivative-NonCommercial License, permitting copying and reproduction so long as the original work is given appropriate credit. Contents may not be used for commercial purposes, or adapted, remixed, transformed or built upon. (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
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