CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Journal of Social Health and Diabetes 2013; 01(02): 056-059
DOI: 10.4103/2321-0656.115294
Methodological Issues in Social Health and Diabetes Research
NovoNordisk Education Foundation

Three types of interviews: Qualitative research methods in social health

Heather L. Stuckey
Department of Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, PA 17033, USA
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
19 November 2018 (online)


Interviewing is a primary way of collecting data in qualitative research to direct the participant in responding to a specific research question. In diabetes, this may include “what are the reasons that have contributed to your success in diabetes self-management” or “how do you believe stress impacts your blood glucose?” Three types of interviews are common in social health: (1) Structured; (2) semi-structured; and (3) narrative interview. These range in a format including specified sets of questions to the telling of patient stories in an organic way. This paper describes the differences between these types of interviews and examples of each related to diabetes research.

  • References

  • 1 Mack N, Woodsong C, Macqueen KM, Guest G, Namey E. International FH. Qualitative research methods overview. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's Field Guide. Family Health International, 2005
  • 2 Grant MA, Rohr LN, Grant JT. How informants answer questions?: Implications for reflexivity. Field Methods 2012; 24: 230-246
  • 3 Green JT. Qualitative Methods for Health Research. In: Silverman D. editor. 2. London: SAGE Publications Ltd; 2009
  • 4 Denzin NK, Lincoln YS. editors. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; 2008: 124
  • 5 Sanderson SC, Diefenbach MA, Streicher SA, Jabs EW, Smirnoff M, Horowitz CR. Genetic and lifestyle causal beliefs about obesity and associated diseases among ethnically diverse patients: A structured interview study. Public Health Genomics 2013; 16: 83-89
  • 6 Rohan JM, Pendley JS, Delamater A, Dolan L, Reeves G, Drotar D. Patterns of self-management in pediatric type 1 diabetes predict level of glycemic control 2 years later. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2013; 34: 186-196
  • 7 Gois C, Dias VV, Carmo I, Duarte R, Ferro A, Santos AL. et al. Treatment response in type 2 diabetes patients with major depression. Clin Psychol Psychother 2012. 2012 [In Press]
  • 8 Rise MB, Pellerud A, Rygg LØ, Steinsbekk A. Making and maintaining lifestyle changes after participating in group based type 2 diabetes self-management educations: A qualitative study. PLoS One 2013; 8: e64009
  • 9 van Esch SC, Heideman WH, Cleijne W, Cornel MC, Snoek FJ. Health care providers' perspective on using family history in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study including different disciplines. BMC Fam Pract 2013; 14: 31
  • 10 Noor Abdulhadi NM, Al-Shafaee MA, Wahlström R, Hjelm K. Doctors' and nurses' views on patient care for type 2 diabetes: An interview study in primary health care in Oman. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2013; 14: 258-269
  • 11 Mathew CS, Dominic M, Isaac R, Jacob JJ. Prevalence of depression in consecutive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of 5-year duration and its impact on glycemic control. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012; 16: 764-768
  • 12 Hjelm K, Bard K, Apelqvist J. Gestational diabetes: Prospective interview-study of the developing beliefs about health, illness and health care in migrant women. J Clin Nurs 2012; 21: 3244-3256
  • 13 Chang HY, Wallis M, Tiralongo E, Wang HL. Decision-making related to complementary and alternative medicine use by people with type 2 diabetes: A qualitative study. J Clin Nurs 2012; 21: 3205-3215
  • 14 Hultsjö S. Mental healthcare staff's knowledge and experiences of diabetes care for persons with psychosis-A qualitative interview study. Prim Health Care Res Dev 2013; 14: 281-292
  • 15 Lindenmeyer A, Bowyer V, Roscoe J, Dale J, Sutcliffe P. Oral health awareness and care preferences in patients with diabetes: A qualitative study. Fam Pract 2013; 30: 113-118
  • 16 Beverly EA, Ritholz MD, Brooks KM, Hultgren BA, Lee Y, Abrahamson MJ. et al. A qualitative study of perceived responsibility and self-blame in type 2 diabetes: Reflections of physicians and patients. J Gen Intern Med 2012; 27: 1180-1187
  • 17 Patel N, Stone MA, Chauhan A, Davies MJ, Khunti K. Insulin initiation and management in people with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse population: The healthcare provider perspective. Diabet Med 2012; 29: 1311-1316
  • 18 Cohen D, Crabtree BF. Qualitative Research Guidelines Project 2006. Available from: [Last accessed on 2013 July 10].
  • 19 Rubinstein RL. Narratives of elder parental death: A structural and cultural analysis. Med Anthropol Q 1995; 9: 257-276
  • 20 Crabtree BF, Miller WL. editors. Doing Qualitative Research. 2. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; 1999
  • 21 Garro LC. Narrative representations of chronic illness experience: Cultural models of illness, mind and body in stories concerning the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Soc Sci Med 1994; 38: 775-788
  • 22 Audulv A. The over time development of chronic illness self-management patterns: A longitudinal qualitative study. BMC Public Health 2013; 13: 452
  • 23 Garmo A, Hörnsten A, Leksell J. The pump was a saviour for me. ‘Patients’ experiences of insulin pump therapy. Diabet Med 2013; 30: 717-723
  • 24 Gomersall T, Madill A, Summers LK. Getting one's thoughts straight: A dialogical analysis of women>s accounts of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Psychol Health 2012; 27: 378-393
  • 25 Rosenbek Minet LK, Lønvig EM, Henriksen JE, Wagner L. The experience of living with diabetes following a self-management program based on motivational interviewing. Qual Health Res 2011; 21: 1115-1126