CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Eur J Dent 2016; 10(02): 301-308
DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.178297
Review Article
Dental Investigation Society

Role of Salvadora persica chewing stick (miswak): A natural toothbrush for holistic oral health

Fayez Niazi
1  Department of Oral Biology, Liaquat College of Medicine and Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan
Mustafa Naseem
2  Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Ziauddin College of Dentistry, Karachi, Pakistan
Zohaib Khurshid
3  Department of Biomaterials, School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Muhammad S. Zafar
4  Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia
Khalid Almas
5  Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
23 September 2019 (online)


From an ancient tool to a modern way of improving oral health, miswak (chewing stick) has proven to be an effective tool for oral health. The miswak removes the bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical actions. It provides a cheap and easily accessible way of improving oral health of the individuals and populations. The use of miswak was promoted centuries ago by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him). In the modern era, the beneficial role of using miswak such as antiseptic, antimicrobial, anticariogenic and analgesic effects have been proven scientifically. This article reviews the various oral health benefits of miswak in the light of religious, scientific and social evidences.