CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 · Eur J Dent 2013; 07(S 01): S020-S025
DOI: 10.4103/1305-7456.119059
Original Article
Dental Investigation Society

Comparison of time-dependent changes in the surface hardness of different composite resins

Suat Ozcan
1   Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, Ankara, Turkiye
Ihsan Yikilgan
1   Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, Ankara, Turkiye
Mine Betul Uctasli
1   Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, Ankara, Turkiye
Oya Bala
1   Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Gazi, Ankara, Turkiye
Zeliha Gonca Bek Kurklu
2   Public Dentist, Adana, Turkiye
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Publication Date:
25 September 2019 (online)


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in surface hardness of silorane-based composite resin (Filtek Silorane) in time and compare the results with the surface hardness of two methacrylate-based resins (Filtek Supreme and Majesty Posterior). Materials and Methods: From each composite material, 18 wheel-shaped samples (5-mm diameter and 2-mm depth) were prepared. Top and bottom surface hardness of these samples was measured using a Vicker′s hardness tester. The samples were then stored at 37°C and 100% humidity. After 24 h and 7, 30 and 90 days, the top and bottom surface hardness of the samples was measured. In each measurement, the rate between the hardness of the top and bottom surfaces were recorded as the hardness rate. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance, multiple comparisons by Tukey′s test and binary comparisons by t-test with a significance level of P = 0.05. Results: The highest hardness values were obtained from each two surfaces of Majesty Posterior and the lowest from Filtek Silorane. Both the top and bottom surface hardness of the methacrylate based composite resins was high and there was a statistically significant difference between the top and bottom hardness values of only the silorane-based composite, Filtek Silorane (p < 0.05). The lowest was obtained with Filtek Silorane. The hardness values of all test groups increased after 24 h (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Although silorane-based composite resin Filtek Silorane showed adequate hardness ratio, the use of incremental technic during application is more important than methacrylate based composites.


  • 1 Sideridou ID, Achilias DS. Elution study of unreacted Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA, and Bis-EMA from light-cured dental resins and resin composites using HPLC. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005; 74: 617-26
  • 2 Irie M, Suzuki K, Watts DC. Marginal gap formation of light-activated restorative materials: Effects of immediate setting shrinkage and bond strength. Dent Mater 2002; 18: 203-10
  • 3 Loguercio AD, Reis A, Schroeder M, Balducci I, Versluis A, Ballester RY. Polymerization shrinkage: Effects of boundary conditions and filling technique of resin composite restorations. J Dent 2004; 32: 459-70
  • 4 Yoshikawa T, Burrow MF, Tagami J. A light curing method for improving marginal sealing and cavity wall adaptation of resin composite restorations. Dent Mater 2001; 17: 359-66
  • 5 Ilie N, Jelen E, Clementino-Luedemann T, Hickel R. Low-shrinkage composite for dental application. Dent Mater J 2007; 26: 149-55
  • 6 Shenoy A. Is it the end of the road for dental amalgam? A critical review. J Conserv Dent 2008; 11: 99-107
  • 7 Weinmann W, Thalacker C, Guggenberger R. Siloranes in dental composites. Dent Mater 2005; 21: 68-74
  • 8 Tilbrook DA, Clarke RL, Howle NE, Braden M. Photocurable epoxy-polyol matrices for use in dental composites I. Biomaterials 2000; 21: 1743-53
  • 9 Eick JD, Kostoryz EL, Rozzi SM, Jacobs DW, Oxman JD, Chappelow CC. et al. In vitro biocompatibility of oxirane/polyol dental composites with promising physical properties. Dent Mater 2002; 18: 413-21
  • 10 Anusavice KJ. Phillip′s Science of Dental Materials. 11 th ed. St. Louis: Elsevier; 2003
  • 11 Ruyter IE, Oysaed H. Conversion in denture base polymers. J Biomed Mater Res 1982; 16: 741-54
  • 12 Louden JD, Roberts TA. Cure profiles of light cured dental composites by Raman spectroscopy. J Raman Spectrosc 1983; 14: 167-70
  • 13 Aguiar FH, Braceiro AT, Ambrosano GM, Lovadino JR. Hardness and diametral tensile strength of a hybrid composite resin polymerized with different modes and immersed in ethanol or distilled water media. Dent Mater 2005; 21: 1098-103
  • 14 Rueggeberg FA, Craig RG. Correlation of parameters used to estimate monomer conversion in a light-cured composite. J Dent Res 1988; 67: 932-7
  • 15 Cook WD. Factors affecting the depth of cure of UV-polymerized composites. J Dent Res 1980; 59: 800-8
  • 16 Murray GA, Yates JL, Newman SM. Ultraviolet light and ultraviolet light-activated composite resins. J Prosthet Dent 1981; 46: 167-70
  • 17 Asmussen E. Factors affecting the quantity of remaining double bonds in restorative resin polymers. Scand J Dent Res 1982; 90: 490-6
  • 18 Yap AU. Effectiveness of polymerization in composite restoratives claiming bulk placement: Impact of cavity depth and exposure time. Oper Dent 2000; 25: 113-20
  • 19 Bouschlicher MR, Rueggeberg FA, Wilson BM. Correlation of bottom-to-top surface microhardness and conversion ratios for a variety of resin composite compositions. Oper Dent 2004; 29: 698-704
  • 20 Knobloch L, Kerby RE, Clelland N, Lee J. Hardness and degree of conversion of posterior packable composites. Oper Dent 2004; 29: 642-9
  • 21 Vandewalle KS, Ferracane JL, Hilton TJ, Erickson RL, Sakaguchi RL. Effect of energy density on properties and marginal integrity of posterior resin composite restorations. Dent Mater 2004; 20: 96-106
  • 22 Davidson-Kaban SS, Davidson CL, Feilzer AJ, de Gee AJ, Erdilek N. The effect of curing light variations on bulk curing and wall-to-wall quality of two types and various shades of resin composites. Dent Mater 1997; 13: 344-52
  • 23 Yap AU, Wong NY, Siow KS. Composite cure and shrinkage associated with high intensity curing light. Oper Dent 2003; 28: 357-64
  • 24 Guiraldo RD, Consani S, Consani RL, Berger SB, Mendes WB, Sinhoreti MA. Light energy transmission through composite influenced by material shades. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2009; 50: 183-90
  • 25 Schneider LF, Consani S, Ogliari F, Correr AB, Sobrinho LC, Sinhoreti MA. Effect of time and polymerization cycle on the degree of conversion of a resin composite. Oper Dent 2006; 31: 489-95
  • 26 Correr AB, Sinhoreti MA, Sobrinho LC, Tango RN, Schneider LF, Consani S. Effect of the increase of energy density on knoop hardness of dental composites light-cured by conventional QTH, LED and xenon plasma arc. Braz Dent J 2005; 16: 218-24
  • 27 Bauer H, Ilie N. Effects of aging and irradiation time on the properties of a highly translucent resin-based composite. Dent Mater J. 2013; 32: 592-9
  • 28 Guiraldo RD, Consani S, Consani RL, Berger SB, Mendes WB, Sinhoreti MA. et al. Comparison of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins on the curing light transmission. Braz Dent J 2010; 21: 538-42
  • 29 Venhoven BA, de Gee AJ, Davidson CL. Polymerization contraction and conversion of light-curing BisGMA-based methacrylate resins. Biomaterials 1993; 14: 871-5
  • 30 Shortall AC, Wilson HJ, Harrington E. Depth of cure of radiation-activated composite restoratives - Influence of shade and opacity. J Oral Rehabil 1995; 22: 337-42
  • 31 Mitra SB, Wu D, Holmes BN. An application of nanotechnology in advanced dental materials. J Am Dent Assoc 2003; 134: 1382-90
  • 32 Kusgoz A, Ülker M, Yesilyurt C, Yoldas OH, Ozil M, Tanriver M. Silorane-based composite: Depth of cure, surface hardness, degree of conversion, and cervical microleakage in Class II cavities. J Esthet Restor Dent 2011; 23: 324-35
  • 33 Bechtold J, Dos Santos PJ, Anido-Anido A, Di Hipólito V, Alonso RC, D›Alpino PH. Hardness, polymerization depth, and internal adaptation of Class II silorane composite restorations as a function of polymerization protocol. Eur J Dent 2012; 6: 133-40
  • 34 Rueggeberg FA, Caughman WF, Curtis Jr JW, Davis HC. Factors affecting cure at depths within light-activated resin composites. Am J Dent 1993; 6: 91-5
  • 35 Mousavinasab SM, Meyers I. Comparison of depth of cure, hardness and heat generation of LED and high ýntensity QTH light sources. Eur J Dent 2011; 5: 299-304
  • 36 Emami N, Sjödahl M, Söderholm KJ. How filler properties, filler fraction, sample thickness and light source affect light attenuation in particulate filled resin composites. Dent Mater 2005; 21: 721-30
  • 37 Pilo R, Cardash HS. Post-irradiation polymerization of different anterior and posterior visible light-activated resin composites. Dent Mater 1992; 8: 299-304
  • 38 Gress JE, Matsumato H, Marker VA, Okabe T, Ferracane JL, Harvey GA. Depth of cure of visible light cured composites-clinical simulation. Dent Abstr 1984; 293: 1097
  • 39 Bassiouny MA, Grant AA. Physical properties of a visible-light-cured composite resin. J Prosthet Dent 1980; 43: 536-41
  • 40 Watts DC, Amer OM, Combe EC. Surface hardness development in light-cured composites. Dent Mater 1987; 3: 265-9
  • 41 Ito S, Hashimoto M, Wadgaonkar B, Svizero N, Carvalho RM, Yiu C. et al. Effects of resin hydrophilicity on water sorption and changes in modulus of elasticity. Biomaterials 2005; 26: 6449-59
  • 42 Ferracane JL. Hygroscopic and hydrolytic effects in dental polymer networks. Dent Mater 2006; 22: 211-22
  • 43 Pereira SG, Osorio R, Toledano M, Cabrerizo-Vílchez MA, Nunes TG, Kalachandra S. Novel light-cured resins and composites with improved physicochemical properties. Dent Mater 2007; 23: 1189-98
  • 44 Yýkýlgan I, Gurel MA, Bala O, Omurlu H. Comparison of water sorption and solubility of different restorative materials. J Gazi Uni Fac Dent 2010; 27: 93-8